Bio Chap 5

Created by ojmanning 

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Molecules with which functional groups may form polymers via dehydration reactions?

a)carbonyl groups
b)carboxyl groups
c)either carbonyl or carboxyl groups
d)hydroxyl groups
e)either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups

e)either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups

Which of these molecules is not formed by dehydration reactions?

a)disaccharides
b)fatty acids
c)protein
d)DNA
e)amylose

fatty acids

Which of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers?

a)nucleic acids
b)lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers
c)carbohydrates
d)lipids
e)proteins

carbohydrates

Which of the following is not a polymer?

a)starch
b)glucose
c)chitin
d)cellulose
e)DNA

glucose

What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?

a)dehydration reactions
b)hydrolysis
c)ionic bonding of monomers
d)phosphodiester linkages
e)the formation of disulfide bridges between monomers

dehydration reactions

How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?

12
11
10
9
8

10

Large organic molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of simple subunits. Which of the following is an exception to this statement?

DNA
an enzyme
a contractile protein
a steroid
cellulose

a steroid

Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

a)Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.

b)Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.

c)Dehydration reactions eliminate water from lipid membranes, and hydrolysis makes lipid membranes water permeable.

d)Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.

e)Dehydration reactions ionize water molecules and add hydroxyl groups to polymers; hydrolysis reactions release hydroxyl groups from polymers.

d)Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.

Polysaccharides, triacylglycerides, and proteins are similar in that they

a)are decomposed into their subunits by dehydration reactions.

b)are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis.

c)are synthesized from subunits by dehydration reactions.

d)are synthesized as a result of peptide bond formation between monomers.

e)all contain nitrogen in their monomer building blocks

c)are synthesized from subunits by dehydration reactions.

Dehydration reactions are used in forming which of the following compounds?

a)triacylglycerides
b)polysaccharides
c)triacylglycerides and proteins only
d)proteins
e)triacylglycerides, polysaccharides, and proteins

triacylglycerides, polysaccharides, and proteins

DNAase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would first happen to DNA molecules treated with DNAase?

a)The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken.

b)All bases would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.

c)The two strands of the double helix would separate.

d)The pyrimidines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.

e)The purines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.

The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken.

Which of the following polymers contain nitrogen?

a)glycogen
b)chitin
c)amylopectin
d)cellulose
e)starch

chitin

The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?

a) C18H32O16
b)C18H10O15
c)C6H10O5
d)C18H36O18
e)C3H6O3

a) C18H32O16

The enzyme amylase can break glycosidic linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are the α form. Which of the following could amylase break down?

a)cellulose
b)starch
c)chitin
d)starch, cellulose, and chitin
e)starch and chitin only

starch

On food packages, to what does the term insoluble fiber refer?

a)amylopectin
b)cellulose
c)polypeptides
d)chitin
e)starch

cellulose

A molecule with the chemical formula is probably a

a)carbohydrate.
b)monosaccharide
c)carbohydrate and monosaccharide only.
d)carbohydrate and lipid only.
e)lipid.

carbohydrate and monosaccharide only.

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?

a)as a hexose
b)as a disaccharide
c)as a monosaccharide
d)as a pentose
e)as a polysaccharide

as a disaccharide

All of the following are polysaccharides except

a)chitin.
b)glycogen.
c)amylopectin.
d)cellulose.
e)lactose.

lactose

Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?

a)They are both polymers of glucose.
b)They are cis-trans isomers of each other.
c)They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.
d)They are both used for energy storage in plants.
e)They can both be digested by humans.

They are both polymers of glucose.

Which of the following is true of cellulose?

a)It is a polymer composed of enantiomers of glucose, it is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells, it is digestible by bacteria in the human gut, and it is a major structural component of plant cell walls.

b)It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells.

c)It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.

d)It is digestible by bacteria in the human gut.

e)It is a polymer composed of enantiomers of glucose

It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.

Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because

a)the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is glucose with a nitrogen-containing group.

b)humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.

c)the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.

d)humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

e)humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the β glycosidic linkages of starch but not the α glycosidic linkages of cellulose

humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

The difference between the sugar in DNA and the sugar in RNA is that the sugar in DNA

a)is a six-carbon sugar and the sugar in RNA is a five-carbon sugar.

b)contains one less oxygen atom.

c)is in the α configuration and the sugar in RNA is in the β configuration.

d)is an aldehyde sugar and the sugar in RNA is a keto sugar.

e)can form a double-stranded molecule

contains one less oxygen atom.

If cells are grown in a medium containing radioactive 32P-labeled phosphate, which of these molecules will be labeled?

a)phospholipids
b)amylose
c)nucleic acids
d)proteins
e)both phospholipids and nucleic acids

both phospholipids and nucleic acids

How will brief heating (to 95°C) affect macromolecular structures in aqueous solution?

a)Starch will hydrolyze into monomeric sugars.

b)DNA duplexes will unwind and separate.

c)Proteins will unfold (denature).

d)DNA duplexes will unwind and separate, and proteins will unfold (denature).

e)Proteins will hydrolyze into amino acids

DNA duplexes will unwind and separate, and proteins will unfold (denature).

If cells are grown in a medium containing radioactive 15N, which of these molecules will be labeled?

a)both proteins and nucleic acids
b)fatty acids only
c)nucleic acids only
d)both fatty acids and proteins
e)proteins only

both proteins and nucleic acids

Which of the following is not a monomer/polymer pairing?

a)deoxyribonucleotide/DNA
b)monosaccharide/polysaccharide
c)ribonucleotide/RNA
d)triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer
e)amino acid/protein

triglyceride/phospholipid bilayer

Approximately 32 different monomeric carbohydrate subunits are found in various natural polysaccharides. Proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids. DNA and RNA are each synthesized from four nucleotides.

Among these biological polymers, which has the least structural variety?

proteins
DNA
polysaccharides
RNA

DNA

Approximately 32 different monomeric carbohydrate subunits are found in various natural polysaccharides. Proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids. DNA and RNA are each synthesized from four nucleotides.

Which class of biological polymer has the greatest functional variety?

a)proteins
b)RNA
c)DNA
d)polysaccharides

proteins

Use the following information to answer the question below.

Approximately 32 different monomeric carbohydrate subunits are found in various natural polysaccharides. Proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids. DNA and RNA are each synthesized from four nucleotides.

Professor Jamey Marth at the University of California, Santa Barbara, identified 70 molecules that are used to build cellular macromolecules and structures. These include at least 34 saccharides, 8 nucleosides, and 20 amino acids. In theory, then, which class of biological polymer has the greatest information-coding capacity?

polysaccharides
proteins
DNA
RNA

polysaccharides

Which of the following statements concerning saturated fats is not true?

a)They are one of several factors that contribute to atherosclerosis.

b)They generally solidify at room temperature.

c)They are more common in animals than in plants.

d)They contain more hydrogen than unsaturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.

e)They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids

They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids

A molecule with the formula is C18H36O2 probably a

nucleic acid.
hydrocarbon.
carbohydrate.
fatty acid.
protein.

fatty acid

Which of the following statements is true for the class of biological molecules known as lipids?

a)They are made from glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate.

b)They are made by dehydration reactions.

c)They contain nitrogen.

d)They contain less energy than proteins and carbohydrates.

e)They are insoluble in water.

They are insoluble in water.

The label on a container of margarine lists "hydrogenated vegetable oil" as the major ingredient. What is the result of adding hydrogens to vegetable oil?

a)The hydrogenated vegetable oil is less likely to clog arteries.

b)The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.

c)The hydrogenated vegetable oil has a lower melting point.

d)The hydrogenated vegetable oil has more "kinks" in the fatty acid chains.

e)The hydrogenated vegetable oil has fewer trans fatty acids.

The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature.

Which of the following is true regarding saturated fatty acids?

a)They are usually produced by plants.

b)They are the principal molecules in lard and butter.

c)They are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.

d)They are usually liquid at room temperature.

e)They have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids.

They are the principal molecules in lard and butter

Why are human sex hormones considered to be lipids?

a)They are hydrophilic compounds.
b)They are not soluble in water.
c)They are essential components of cell membranes.
d)They are made of fatty acids.
e)They contribute to atherosclerosis.

They are not soluble in water.

All of the following contain amino acids except

a)insulin.
b)cholesterol.
c)enzymes.
d)hemoglobin.
e)antibodies.

cholesterol

The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires

a)the release of a water molecule.
b)the release of a nitrous oxide molecule.
c)the addition of a nitrogen atom.
d)the release of a carbon dioxide molecule.
e)the addition of a water molecule.

the release of a water molecule.

There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from another?

a)different side chains (R groups) attached to a carboxyl carbon

b)different asymmetric carbons

c)different side chains (R groups) attached to an α carbon

d)different side chains (R groups) attached to the amino groups

e)different structural and optical isomers

different side chains (R groups) attached to an α carbon

Upon chemical analysis, a particular polypeptide was found to contain 100 amino acids. How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?

101
100
99
98
97

99

How many different kinds of polypeptides, each composed of 12 amino acids, could be synthesized using the 20 common amino acids?


12^20
20^12
20
240
4^12

20^12

Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?

a)phosphodiester bonds
B)hydrogen bonds
c)disulfide bonds
d)peptide bonds
e)peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds

peptide bonds

What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?

a)disulfide bonds
b)hydrogen bonds between the amino group of one peptide bond and the carboxyl group of another peptide bond
c)hydrophobic interactions
d)hydrogen bonds between the R groups
e)peptide bonds

hydrogen bonds between the amino group of one peptide bond and the carboxyl group of another peptide bond

Which level of protein structure do the α helix and the β pleated sheet represent?

a)primary
b)secondary
c)tertiary
d)quaternary
e)primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary

secondary

Which type of interaction stabilizes the α helix and the β pleated sheet structures of proteins?

a)ionic bonds
b)peptide bonds
c)hydrophobic interactions
d)hydrogen bonds
e)disulfide bonds

hydrogen bonds

The amino acids of the protein keratin are arranged predominantly in an α helix. This secondary structure is stabilized by

a)ionic bonds.
b)peptide bonds
c)hydrogen bonds.
d)covalent bonds.
e)polar bonds

hydrogen bonds

The tertiary structure of a protein is the

a)order in which amino acids are joined in a polypeptide chain.

b)overall protein structure resulting from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits.

c)bonding together of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds.

d)organization of a polypeptide chain into an α helix or β pleated sheet.

e)unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide.

unique three-dimensional shape of the fully folded polypeptide

What type of covalent bond between amino acid side chains (R groups) functions in maintaining a polypeptide's specific three-dimensional shape?

a)disulfide bond
b)ionic bond
c)hydrophobic interaction
d)van der Waals interaction
e)hydrogen bond

disulfide bond

At which level of protein structure are interactions between the side chains (R groups) most important?

a)primary
b)secondary
c)tertiary
d)quaternary
e)primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary

tertiary

The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is -CH2-OH. The R group or side chain of the amino acid leucine is -CH2-CH(CH3)2. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in aqueous solution?

a)Leucine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

b)Both serine and leucine would be in the interior and on the exterior of the globular protein.

c)Serine would be in the interior, and leucine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

d)Both serine and leucine would be in the interior of the globular protein.

e)Both serine and leucine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

Leucine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein.

Misfolding of polypeptides is a serious problem in cells. Which of the following diseases are associated with an accumulation of misfolded polypeptides?

a)Alzheimer's and Parkinson's only
b)diabetes mellitus only
c)Alzheimer's only
d)Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes mellitus
e)Parkinson's only

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's only

Changing a single amino acid in a protein consisting of 325 amino acids would

a)always alter the primary structure of the protein, sometimes alter the tertiary structure of the protein, and sometimes affect its biological activity.

b)always alter the primary structure of the protein and disrupt its biological activity.

c)alter the primary structure of the protein but not its tertiary structure or function.

d)cause the tertiary structure of the protein to unfold.

e)always alter the biological activity or function of the protein.

always alter the primary structure of the protein, sometimes alter the tertiary structure of the protein, and sometimes affect its biological activity

Normal hemoglobin is a tetramer, consisting of two molecules of β hemoglobin and two molecules of α hemoglobin. In sickle-cell disease, as a result of a single amino acid change, the mutant hemoglobin tetramers associate with each other and assemble into large fibers. Based on this information alone, we can conclude that sickle-cell hemoglobin exhibits

a)altered primary structure.
b)altered tertiary structure.
c)altered quaternary structure.
d)altered primary structure and altered quaternary structure; the secondary and tertiary structures may or may not be altered.
e)altered secondary structure.

altered primary structure and altered quaternary structure; the secondary and tertiary structures may or may not be altered.

In a normal cellular protein, where would you expect to find a hydrophobic amino acid like valine?

a)anywhere in the protein, with equal probability

b)in the interior of the folded protein, away from water

c)in the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains

d)on the exterior surface of the protein, interacting with water

e)in the transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains

in the interior of the folded protein, away from water, or in a transmembrane portion interacting with lipid fatty acid chains

Which of the following techniques uses the amino acid sequences of polypeptides to predict a protein's three-dimensional structure?


a)X-ray crystallography
b)high-speed centrifugation
c)analysis of amino acid sequence of small fragments
d)bioinformatics
e)NMR spectroscopy

bioinformatics

If cells are grown in a medium containing radioactive 35S, which of these molecules will be labeled?

a)both proteins and nucleic acids
b)phospholipids
c)amylose
d)proteins
e)nucleic acids

proteins

What is the term used for a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of other proteins?

a)denaturing protein
b)tertiary protein
c)renaturing protein
d)enzyme protein
e)chaperonin

chaperonin

A new organism is discovered in the forests of Costa Rica. Scientists there determine that the polypeptide sequence of hemoglobin from the new organism has 72 amino acid differences from humans, 65 differences from a gibbon, 49 differences from a rat, and 5 differences from a frog. These data suggest that the new organism


a)is more closely related to rats than to frogs.

b)is more closely related to frogs than to humans

c)is more closely related to humans than to rats.

d)is more closely related to humans than to frogs.

e)is more closely related to gibbons than to rats.

is more closely related to frogs than to humans

Which of the following statements about the 5' end of a polynucleotide strand of DNA is correct?

a)The 5' end is the fifth position on one of the nitrogenous bases.

b)The 5' end has a carboxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of deoxyribose.

c)The 5' end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of deoxyribose.

d)The 5' end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of the nitrogenous base.

e)The 5' end has a hydroxyl group attached to the number 5 carbon of deoxyribose.

The 5' end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of deoxyribose.

One of the primary functions of RNA molecules is to

a)act as a pattern or blueprint to form DNA.

b)form the genes of higher organisms.

c)transmit genetic information to offspring.

d)function in the synthesis of proteins.

e)make a copy of itself, thus ensuring genetic continuity.

function in the synthesis of proteins.

If 14C-labeled uracil is added to the growth medium of cells, what macromolecules will be labeled?

a)phospholipids
b)DNA
c)proteins
d)both DNA and RNA
e)RNA

RNA

Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides?

a)a nitrogenous base and a pentose sugar

b)a pentose sugar and a purine or pyrimidine

c)a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group

d)a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

e)a phosphate group and an adenine or uracil

a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the pyrimidine type?

a)ribose and deoxyribose
b)cytosine and uracil
c)adenine and thymine
d)guanine and adenine
e)thymine and guanine

cytosine and uracil

Which of the following are nitrogenous bases of the purine type?

a)thymine and uracil
b)uracil and cytosine
c)adenine and thymine
d)guanine and adenine
e)cytosine and guanine

guanine and adenine

If a DNA sample were composed of 10% thymine, what would be the percentage of guanine?

10
80
20
40
impossible to tell from the information given

40

A double-stranded DNA molecule contains a total of 120 purines and 120 pyrimidines. This DNA molecule could be composed of

a)120 adenine and 120 cytosine molecules.
b)120 cytosine and 120 thymine molecules.
c)120 guanine and 120 thymine molecules.
d)120 adenine and 120 uracil molecules.
e)120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules.

120 thymine and 120 adenine molecules.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between DNA and RNA?

a)DNA encodes hereditary information, whereas RNA does not.

b)The bases in DNA form base-paired duplexes, whereas the bases in RNA do not.

c)DNA encodes hereditary information, whereas RNA does not; the bases in DNA form base-paired duplexes, whereas the bases in RNA do not; and DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.

d)DNA contains the base uracil, whereas RNA contains the base thymine.

e)DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.

DNA nucleotides contain a different sugar than RNA nucleotides.

What is the structural feature that allows DNA to replicate?

a)complementary pairing of the nitrogenous bases

b)disulfide bonding (bridging) of the two helixes

c)sugar-phosphate backbone

d)three-component structure of the nucleotides

e)twisting of the molecule to form an α helix

complementary pairing of the nitrogenous bases

If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have the sequence

a)3'UAACGU5'.
b)5'UAACGU3'.
c)5'UGCAAU3'.
d)5'TAACGT3'.
e)5'TGCAAT3'.

5'TGCAAT3'.

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