• Describes physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are threatening or challenging.
physical problems, emotional problems, cognitive problems
fatigue,sleeping problems, illness/nausea
anxiety, depression, fear, irritability
lack of concentration, poor memory, poor decisions
types of stressors
distress and eustress
stress caused by unpleasant happenings.
examples of distress
divorce and death
stress caused by good things
examples of eustress
marriage and pregnancy
Lazarus's cognitive appraisal theory of stress
The way we think about a stressor can affect how stressful it becomes. Primary Appraisal- estimating stressor and identifying it as a threat, challenged, or a loss. Secondary appraisal- do i have the resources to deal with this?
3 types of stressors
catastrophes, major life changes, hassles
unpredictable event on a large scale
major life changes
marriage, new job, college
Holmes and Rahe's Social Readjustment rating scale
What is this used for? What are the most stressful events on the list?
college undergrad scale
What is this used for? What are the most stressful events on the list?
sources of stress
pressure, uncontrollability, frustration, conflict
demands and expectations are high from a outside source, "time" is a common source, can negatively impact ability to be creative.
learned helplessness effect and executive monkey syndrome
learned helplessness effect
If a group of animals gets inescapable shocks, they will fail to learn to escape from shock later on, even though escape is possible. LH animals are more susceptible to illnesses May be a good model of post-traumatic stress disorder
executive monkey effect
Monkeys put in charge of too many things become overwhelmed.
occurs when people are blocked from achieving their goals. major/minor frustrations affected by the seriousness.
responses to frustration
persistence, aggression, displacement, escape/withdrawal
approach-approach avoidance conflict, avoidance-avoidance conflict, approach-avoidance conflict
general adaptation syndrome
general adaptation syndrome
what happens to the body when its under stress. Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome: alarm
ANS activation, burst of energy, fever, nausea, headache
general adaptation syndrome: resistance
body settles into ANS activation
general adaptation syndrome: exhaustion
sympathetic reaction used up, resources are gone, fatigue, illness
type A personality
workaholics, very ambitious, competitive, easily annoyed, 3 times more likely to have unhealthy heart conditions than type B personalities
type B personality
easy going and slow to anger
type C personality
internalize feelings and strongly associated with cancer
tend to thrive on stress : have a deep sense of commitment to goals, feel in control of their lives, see things as a challenge
unique way in which an individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life. NOT character and NOT temperament
perspectives on personality
psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, and trait
psychodynamic perspectives on personality
freud and the victorian society which was a time of sexual repression
three subdivisions of the mind
preconscious, conscious, unconscious mind
3 sudivisons of the mind: preconscious mind
memories, info, that is accessible if you want to retrieve it
3 subdivisions of the mind: conscious mind
ones current awareness
3 subdivisions of the mind: unconscious mind
part of the mind that remains hidden at all times, surfaces only in dreams and manifests in unexplained behaviors; most important part of personality
3 parts of personality
Id, ego, superego
All in unconscious mind, Pleasure principle, Exists from birth, Demanding, illogical, irrational, impulsive
• Desire for the immediate gratification with no regards for the consequences.
In conscious mind, Rational, logical, Sometimes referred to as the "self", Reality principle
Development of morality - your "conscience", Develops during preschool ages, Rule orientated
Conflict between Id and Superego
creates inner conflict and anxiety, Psychological defense mechanisms
Psychological defense mechanisms
to resolve conflict we create unconsciously distortions of reality.
5 stages of psychosexual development
oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
5 stages of psychosexual development: oral stage
zone is the mouth, from birth to 1-1.5 yrs., stage is dominated by the Id, effects of early or late weaning
5 stages of psychosexual development: anal stage
from 1.5-3 yrs., effects of toilet training: anal expulsive personalities, anal retentive personalities
5 stages of psychosexual development: phallic stage
3-6 yrs., erogenous zone is genitalia, Castration anxiety and penis envy, Oedipus complex and Identification, development of the super ego
5 stages of psychosexual development: latency stage
from 6 until puberty, sexual feelings for the opposite sex are represented, boys have "cootites" and girls are "yucky"
5 stages of psychosexual development: genital stage
puberty onwards and sexually attracted to peers
frued's psychosexual fixation
unresolved conflicts during a stage can cause one to get "stuck"
Broke away from focus on sexual behavior and Emphasized social/environmental influences on personality
Neo-Freudians: Carl Jung
Collective unconscious-memories shared by all members of the human species--archetypes
Neo-Freudians: Alfred Alder
Feelings of superiority and inferiority and Birth order effects
Neo-Freudians: Karen Horney
Basic anxiety and Effects of secure and insecure upbringing
Neo-Freudians: Erik Erikson
Eight stages of psychosocial development
emphasized the role of learning on personality development
Social Cognitive View
learning, expectations, and modeling all play a role in developing personality
Bandura's Theory of personality development
Bandura's Theory of personality development: Reciprocal determinism
Environment, Behavior, and Cognitive factors all work together to determine personality. Self-efficacy
expectations of whether one's own behavior will accomplish a goal in that circumstance.
role of individual's life choices and self-concept
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
Focuses on aspects of personality that make people uniquely human--i.e., feelings and choices.
need to fulfill one's own potential.
Formation of self-concept
Real self vs. Ideal self
concerned with specific traits of the individual
describe personalities and try to predict behavior based on that personality
Allport's trait theory
believed traits were wired in the nervous system.
Cattell's 16 personality factors
Surface traits vs Source traits and Through statistical methods identified 16 source traits.
Cattell's 16 personality factors: The big five
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
What is abnormal?: psychologists definition
Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life.
Four ways to define abnormal behavior
Statistical definition - behavior that is rare, Deviance from social norms, Personal Distress, Inability to function normally - maladaptive behavior
models of abnormality
biological an psychological methods
model of abnormality : biological method
Medical Model - psychological disorders have a biological cause
model of abnormality: psychological method
Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Cognitive perspective, Combination approaches
behavioral abnormality is the result of repressing undesirable thoughts, memories, and concerns.
abnormal behaviors are learned
abnormal behavior results from illogical thinking patterns
Diagnosing Psychological Disorders
known as the DSM-IV-TR Contains each known disorder, a description, symptoms, checklist of criteria, and other relevant facts. Divided into five Axes
Axis I - Clinical disorders, Axis II - Personality disorders and Mental Retardation, Axis III - General Medical conditions, Axis IV - Psychosocial and environmental problems, Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning
Pseudo-patients could not be distinguished from regular patients. Behaviors were viewed as abnormal because of contextual bias
Prevalence of Psychological disorders
About 22% of adults suffer from mental disorder per year. About 44 million people in the US. Most prevalent of Psychological disorders is depression
Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders (Affective disorders), Schizophrenia
Fear vs. free-floating anxiety, Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Panic disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Anxiety disorders: phobias
Social phobia, Specific phobia,Agoraphobia
fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation, Afraid of negative evaluation by others, Very self-conscious, Ex. Stage fright, fear of public speaking
fear of something in particular, Ex. Fear of dogs, fear of needles, enclosed places.
Fear of being in a place where escape is difficult if something should go wrong
Anxiety disorders: OCD
Obsessions - intruding thoughts, Compulsions - ritualistic behaviors that reduce anxiety
anxiety disorders: panic disorder
Sudden onset of impending sense of doom
anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Excessive worrying around the clock, Interferes with normal functioning
causes of anxiety disorders
Psychoanalytic explanation, Behaviorist explanation, Cognitive explanation
causes of anxiety disorders: psychoanalytic explanation
repressed feelings and thoughts
causes of anxiety disorders: behaviorist explanation
learned over time
causes of anxiety behaviors: cognitive explanation
illogical, irrational thought (Magnification, All-or-nothing thinking, Overgeneralization, Minimization)
causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-magnification
making mountains out of molehills
causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation- all-or-nothing thinking
must be perfect or it's totally ruined
causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-Overgeneralization
single negative event interpreted as a pattern
causes of anxiety disorders: cognitive explanation-minimization
only look at the bad, minimizing the positive.
Mood disorders (affective disorders)
mild and major mood disorders and schizophrenia
mood disorders: mild mood
Dysthymia and Cyclothymia
mood disorders: mild mood-Dysthymia
a moderate depression that lasts for two years or more and is typically associated with some outside stressor
mood disorders: mild mood- Cyclothymia
cycle between sadness and happiness that lasts more than two years.
mood disorders: major mood
major depression and bipolar disorder
mood disorders:major mood- major depression
Deeply depressed mood that comes on fairly suddenly and is out of proportion with the circumstances surrounding it.
mood disorders: major mood- bipolar disorders
Manic episode (extreme happiness) followed by depression episode
mood disorders: schizophrenia
psychotic disorder, positive symptoms, negative symptoms
types of schizophrenia
disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, residual
types of schizophrenia: disorganized
confused speech patterns, vivid and frequent hallucinations, inappropriate affect, socially impaired, poor hygiene.
types of schizophrenia: catatonic
does not respond to the outside world. Will not move for hours on end, often staying in odd postures. Totally on or off
types of schizophrenia: paranoid
suffers from hallucinations and delusions, often auditory. Often believe they are being persecuted or pursued
types of schizophrenia: undifferentiated
may shift from one type of schizophrenia to another
types of schizophrenia: residual
after a major episode of schizophrenia that is over. Person may return to "somewhat" normal, but retain odd, quirky symptoms
schizophrenia: positive symptoms
hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, irrational thought, word salad
schizophrenia: negative symptoms
flat affect, catatonia, social withdrawal, lack of speech
schizophrenia: psychotic disorder
Long-lasting psychotic disorder (involving a break with reality) characterized by disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception
causes of schizophrenia
Evidence for genetics and Dopamine hypothesis
causes of schizophrenia: evidence for genetics
Twin studies - monozygotic twins - 49%; dizygotic twins - 7%. Adoption studies - much higher prevalence for Schizophrenia in biological family than in adopted family.
causes of schizophrenia: dopamine hypothesis
Theory that it is excessive dopamine that causes Schizophrenia DA antagonists do relieve positive symptoms, however evidence for this theory is mixed.
types of psychological therapies
psychotherapy, action therapies, cognitive therapy
talking about problems to someone who listens
psychotherapy: insight therapy
aimed at understanding motives and actions
believed it was a way to "cleanse" the unconscious mind. dream analysis, free association, resistance, transference.
believed that unconscious info emerged in dreams
loosely associated stream of ideas, free of negative evaluation.
patients unwilling to talk about certain things- coming close to repressed material.
patient transfers feelings from childhood to therapist.
psychological therapy: humanistic therapy
person-centered therapy carl rogers and 4 basic elements
four basic elements of humanistic therapies
reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, authenticity
4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: reflection
mirroring a client's statements without interfering with the flow of ideas.
4 basic elements od humanistic therapy: unconditional positive regard
completely accepting atmosphere created by the therapist
4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: empathy
trying to feel what the client is feeling
4 basic elements of humanistic therapy: authenticity
genuine, open, and honest responding to the client.
action therapies: behavior therapy
Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis, Use of learning techniques to change behavior
behavior therapy- systematic desensitization (flooding)
a form of counter conditioning
behavior therapy- aversion therapy
pairing behavior with something negative
behavior therapy: modeling
learning through the observation and imitation of others
behavior therapy: reinforcement
strengthening a response by following with something pleasurable or by removing something unpleasent
behavior therapy: extinction
removing attention/pleasant reward when bad behavior is occurring
Focused on changing distorted thinking patterns
beck's cognitive therapy
testing beliefs to see how accurate they really are
mixes both cognitive therapy with behaviorism. relieve symptoms, help clients develop strategies to cope with future problems, help clients change the way they think- more positive
rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis- challenge beliefs with more helpful statements
CBT vs. Insight therapies
CBT is short term and cheaper, CBT - is it treating the cause or the symptoms
biomedical therapy-medical procedures
psychopharmacological treatments, electroconvulsive shock, psychosurgery
Use of drugs to relieve the symptoms of psychological disorder
shock to the head that results in convulsions.
The term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are viewed as threatening or challenging is _________
The response an individual might have to an unpleasant stressor, such as losing his job, would be called
After we have decided that a certain event is a stressor, we must decide how we will deal with it and what resources are available for coping with the stressor. This process is called________.
Which of the following is an example of a stressor that would be classified as a hassle?
locking your keys in the car
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures stress related to _____.
positive and negative life events
A woman who had an unpleasant confrontation with her boss and then goes home and yells at the dog would be displaying
Which of the following is an example of an avoidance-avoidance conflict?
a student has to decide whether to turn in an unfinished paper and receive a failing grade or hand it in late and lose many points
The general adaptation syndrome proposed by Hans Selye describes how we respond to stress with regard to our
The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of ______.
coronary heart disease
Many have compared Freud's idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water?
In Sigmund Freud's theory, the _____ operates according to the pleasure principle.
According to Freud, the last component of an individual's personality to develop is the
Freud called the developmental stage in which the Oedipus complex occurs the
Karen Horney disagreed with Freud about the unconscious force that influences behavior. She believed the force was not sexual desire, but rather
Albert Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as
Which of the following represents an example of unconditional positive regard?
a parent telling his son he loves him even though he just wrecked the family car
How many source traits did Raymond Cattell discover through the process of factor analysis?
What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of "social norm deviance" to define abnormal behavior?
Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another
The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from
The psychoanalytic model holds that abnormal behavior is the result of ______.
_______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five __________.
Over the past few years, Sam has become extremely fearful of going to any public place such as a restaurant, concert, or even the grocery store. There are many days when Sam does not even leave his house for fear that he might be caught somewhere that would not be easy to escape from. Which anxiety disorder would Sam most likely be diagnosed with?
Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders
Which of the following is the biological explanation for mood disorders?
They are a result of an imbalance of brain chemicals
A person suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality, is likely suffering from
The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior
Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as __________.
Freud believed one of the indications that he was close to discovering an unconscious conflict was when a patient became unwilling to talk about a topic. He referred to this response in the patient as
What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness?
mismatch between an individual's ideal self and real self
Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object?
Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy?
It only relieves some of the symptoms, but does not treat the overall disorder.
What is the goal of cognitive therapy?
to help people change their ways of thinking
Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?
They are less expensive and short-term than typical insight therapies