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Susan Warner responded to financial adversity by..?

writing a novel for publication

from 1820 to 1860, the american economy witnessed a..?

doubling of per capita income

all of the following factors contributed to American economic growth from 1820 to 1860 except the..?

maintenance of low tariff rates

during the 1820s and 1830s, canal building projects..?

carried people and goods long distances for a lower cost

by the late 1830s, the ____ had become the country's granary.

old northwest

state governments promoted economic growth by..?

underwriting bonds for improvement projects

intangible factors contributing to america's antebellum economic growth included the..?

entrepreneurial mentality and mechanical nature of most Americans

the early mechanization of the cloth industry..?

supplemented rather than replaced home manufacturing

antebellum advocates of public education hoped that the schools would..?

counter unsettling effects of economic change

manufacturers primarily valued education for their workers because it..?

encouraged habits of discipline and productivity

horace mann championed which of the following educational reforms?

uniform curricula and teacher training

between 1819 and 1824, a series of supreme court decisions established the basic principle that..?

contracts were binding legal instruments

the dramatic rise in railroad construction in the two decades before the Civil War contributed to the?

trend toward regional specialization

by the 1850s, all of the following factors undermined the united action of women mill workers except the?

lond tenure of women workers

for most cincinnati workers before the civil war, manufacturing jobs?

imposed a form of "wage slavery"

the concept of domesticity?

implied the moral superiority of women

the role of the ideal woman in antebellum america was to?

create a clean and wholesome home for family life

a dramatic rise in the concentration of wealth in the US from 1820 to 1860?

hardened class lines

continuing urban growth of NYC from 1820 to 1860 resulted primarily from its?

role in domestic and foreign trade

for outworkers, the invention of the sewing machine in the mid-1840s?

led bosses to expect a greater volume of work

a short-lived strike by lowell's women workers in february 1834 occurred in protest of?

wage cuts

women workers at the lowell mills?

lived in closely supervised company boardinghouses

the women who came to lowell for mill jobs were?

the first women to labor outside their homes in large numbers

the most important innovation of Francis Cabot Lowell's waltham operation was to?

combine the steps of cotton production under one roof

the participants in the philadelphia riots of august 1834?

came from the bottom of the occupational and economic ladder

riots in philadelphia in august 1834 stemmed primarily from?

racial tensions

in most northern states, free blacks were?

segregated from whites in public facilities

the northwest became tied to antebellum eastern markets with the increasing production of?

wheat

although the american economy developed rapidly between 1820 and 1860..?

expansion was cyclic in nature and interrupted by periods of depression

from 1820 to 1860, more eastern farmers?

used scientific methods to increase profits

the lesson frederick douglass learned on how to survive slavery was to?

understand and outwit his oppressors

the most recent historical interpretations of slavery have viewed the institution?

through eyes of the slaves themselves

the majority of white southerners in antebellum america owned?

no slaves at all

the invention of the cotton gin in 1793?

tied the southern economy to cotton production

from 1815 to 1860, southern production of cotton?

represented more than half of all american exports

laws to control the domestic slave trade were?

poorly enforced and usually short lived

southerners migrated southwestward in huge numbers between 1830 and 1860, seeking new lands for the?

production of cotton

the majority of slaves were engaged in?

agricultural labor

the tredegar iron company of richmond decided in 1847 to shift from white to slave labor to?

destroy the potential power of organized white workers to strike

white artisans in the south viewed black workers as?

threats to their livelihoods

the typical slaveholder owned?

fewer than 10 slaves

most whites in the antebellum south?

regarded slaveholding as a path to upward economic mobility

sociologist george fitzhugh argued tha southern black slaves?

received better treatment than northern factory workers

wealthy souther planters justified slavery in terms of white superiority because such a defense?

deflected potential class antagonisms among whites

slave spirituals reiterated one basic christian theme?

a chosen poeple were held captive but would be delivered

in the slave folktales, Brer Rabbit?

knows how to use his cunning to outwit his enemies

the slave conspiracies of Gabriel Prosser in 1800 and Denmark Vessey in 1822 were both thwarted by?

internal betrayal by fellow slaves

the free black population of the US increased from 1820 to 1860 because of all of the following reasons except the?

continuing immigration of blacks from Africa

many slaveholders urged their slaves to attend church because it?

offered the slaveholder a form of social control

free African Americans were likely to?

reside in cities and towns

following the convergence of Nat Turner's revolt and William Lloyd Garrison's publication of the abolitionist Liberator in 1831?

state laws prohibiting manumission were passed in the South

slavery inhibited the economic growth of the south because of the slaveholders'?

undiversified capital investments

for southern white women, Mary Boykin Chesnut regarded "the sorest spot" of slavery as the?

double standard of plantation sexuality

the yeoman farmers of the south?

were fiercely proud of their independence

preachers of the second great awakening, such as charles finney, emphasized?

emotion

elected president in 1828, Andrew Jackson?

won a resounding majority of popular ballots

in his exposition and protest, john calhoun argued that a state has the power to?

nullify harmful national legislation

andrew jackson argued that the national bank?

represented an example of special privilege that hurt the common man

during the depession of the late 1830s, the?

wages of workers fell by 30 to 50 percent within 2 years

the "specie" in Jackson's Specie Circular of 1836 refers to?

gold and silver coin

during the 1840s and 1850s, temperance advocates?

lobbied for passage of local option laws

all of the following factors contributed to a reform impulse in the US during the 1830s except the?

puritan theology of predestination

antebellum americans joined the temperance crusade, as they did other reform societies, largely to?

seek relief from an uncertain and changing world

whether secular or religious, the utopian communities of the antebellum era failed for all of the following reasons except the?

stress on the individualistic impulses of human nature

in the election of 1840, the Whigs?

featured new, flamboyant electioneering styles and techniques

the trade unions fared better than the labor parties in the 1830s because?

trade union programs were more immediately practical

like many perfectionist reformers, dorothea dix believed that?

special asylums could reform society's outcasts

"president jackson joined in denouncing the abolitionists in his annual message in 1835 as incendiaries." an incendiary is one who?

inflames a situation

"some promoted panaceas for all ailments." a panacea is a?

cure-all

"he wasan instant, if unorthodox convert." an unorthodox convert would be one who?

breaks with convention or tradition

for 72 years, the major goal of the women's right movement remained?

the right to vote

the declaration of sentiments drawn up in seneca falls, new york, in 1848 asserted that?

all men and women are created equal

anti-abolitionists did all of the following except?

engaged in mob attacks against leading abolitionists

the primary tactic used by abolitionists in theri crusade against slavery was one of?

moral suasion through speeches and literature

the american anti-slavery society, formed by william lloyd garrison, advocated the?

immediate and total abolition of slavery

over two-thirds of workers' strikes between 1834 and 1836 were held for?

higher wages

according to the democrats of the 1830s, the government should?

allow amercians freedom to follow their individual interests

which of the ofllowing groups would have been most likely to favor recharter of the second bank of the US?

state bankers needing credit

during the 1830sm the cherokee indians?

suffered hardships and death in a forced removal to oklahoma

andrew jackson's early national reputation stemmed mainly from his?

military victory over the british at new orleans in 1815

southerners opposed high protective tariff rates because they feared resultant?

increased prices for manufactured goods

as president, andrew jackson?

asserted his power most dramatically through use of the veto

one of andrew jackson's key convictions as president was to?

defend the interests of average people

american political activity in the 1820s?

aimed at widespread voter organization and participation

essayist ralph walkdo emerson urged americans to?

look inward for knowledge and self-reliance

by 1860, the US had settled?

its boundaries with both Canada and Mexico

in 1815, Spain held title to all of the following present-day lands except?

louisiana

according to agreements made in 1818 and 1827, the US and Great Britain?

jointly occupied oregon

americans were attracted to texas in the 1820s by the?

lure of cheap land for cotton cultivation

in 1821, Mexico won its?

independence

the slogan "Manifest Destiny" referred to the conviction of Americans in the 1840s that the US had an?

obligation to spread across the continent

democrats such as Stephen Douglas supported the annexation of texas on the grounds that it would?

spread the benefits of american civilizations

in his popular emigrants' guide to oregon and california (1845), lansford hastings?

provided both practical information as well as encouragement for fronteir settlers

as a result of mexan restrictions in texas, american settlers there?

fought a war with mexico

with the victory at San Jacinto in 1836, texas?

gained its independence from mexico

all of the follwoing factors nourished an american conviction that california must become part of the US except the?

desire of newcomers to blend into california society

between 1848 and 1883, california gold?

fueled the agricultural and commercial development of california and oregon

"frederick douglass accused the country of cupidity and love of dominion." cupidity is the crime of?

greed

"joseph smith and other church leaders had secretly practice polygamy in the early 1840s." for mormons, polygamy was the practice of?

having more than one wife

for mexicans living in territory annexed by the US, the influx of anglos?

often meant increased oppression rather than opportunity

in return for various presents offered by the US government at the Fort Laramie Council of 1851, participating Indian chiefs pledged that their tribes would?

limit their movements to prescribed areas

the primary cause for Indian-white conflict by the late 1840s was the?

destruction of indian grass, timber, and buffalo by white emigrants

most of the plains indians?

lived a nomadic lifestyle in pursuit of the buffalo

nineteenth-century western cities?

tended to have more male than female residents

the mormon emigrants to utah?

concentrated on converting rather than killing native americans

for most emigrants on the overland trails?

difficulties multiplied as the trip lengthened

in contrast to the agricultural frontier, migrants to the mining frontier were more?

intent on making a quick profit

the pre-emption acts during the 1830s and 1840s?

encouraged westward migration by protection of squatters' rights

perhaps most emigrants to the far west were motivated by dreams of?

bettering thier health by escaping debilitating sicknesses

most of the emigrants who headed for the far west were?

white and born in america

in reference to the oregon question, president polk?

supported a division of the territory at the 49th parallel

in the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo (1848), the US agreed to?

guarantee the civil and political rights of former mexican citizens

the town of Sante Fe was?

occupied without a shot by american forces in 1846

eastern indian tribes from the south and old northwest, whom the american government forcibly relocated in the west?

served ironically as agents of white civilization

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