a cue for suggesting depth in the image be presenting objects in the distance less distinctly than those in the foreground
Angle of framing/Camera angle
the position of the frame in relation to the subject it shows:
Above it, looking down = high angle
Horizontal, on the same level = straight on angle
Below it, looking up = low angle
a view in which the frame is not level; either the right or left side is lower than the other, causing objects in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright position
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large; most commonly, a persons head seen from the neck up, or an object of a comparable size that fills most of the screen
a cut that presents continuous time from shot to shot but that mismatches the positions of figures and objects
degree of which the ending of a narrative film reveals the effects of all the casual events and resolves (closes off) all lines of action
a system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action. continuity editing relies on matching screen direction, position, and temporal relations from shot to shot.
Axis of action
the imaginary line that passes through the main actors of the principal movement. the axis of action defines the spatial relations of all the elements of the scene as being to the right or left. the cam is not supposed to cross the axis at a cut and thus reverse those spatial relations.
Also called 180 degree line
a shot with change in framing accomplished by placing the cam above the subject and moving through the air in any direction
editing the alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneously
Filmmaking: the joining of two strips of film together with a splice
Finished Film: an instantaneous change from one framing to another
an instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space
a use of the camera lens and lighting that keeps objects in both close and distant planes in sharp focus
an arrangement of mise-en-scene elements so that there is a considerable distance between the plane closest to the cam and the one farthest away. any or all of these planes may be in focus
Narrative film: the world of the film's story. Includes events that are presumed to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen
any voice, musical passage or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film's world
music, noise and speech recorded from the event at the moment of filming
opposite of post-synchronization
any alternative system of joining shots together using techniques unacceptable within continuity editing principles. possibilities include mismatching of temporal and spatial relations, violations of the axis of action and concentration on graphic relationships.
transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears; for a moment the two images blend in superimposition
Distance of framing
the apparent distance of the frame from the mise-en-scene elements
also called cam distance and shot scale
Narrative film: the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the time span presented in the plot and assumed to operate the story
Filmmaking: the task of selecting and joining camera takes
Finished film: the set of techniques that governs the relations among shots
Narrative film: the shortening of plot duration achieved by omitting some story duration
short transitions that omit parts of an event causing an ellipsis in plot duration
a shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene
External diegetic sound
sound represented as coming from a physical source within the story space that we assume characters in the scene also hear
internal diegetic sound
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is very large; most commonly, a small object or a part of the body
Extreme long shot
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small; a building, landscape or crowd of people will fill the screen
a cut obeying the axis of action principle, in which the first shot shows a person looking off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she see.
If the person looks left, the following shot should imply that the looker is offscreen right.
Fade in = a dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears
Fade out = a shot that gradually disappears as the screen darkens. occasionally, fade outs brighten to pure white or to a colour.
an alternation of story order in which the plot moves back to show events that have taken place earlier than the ones already shown
an alternation of story order in which the plot presentation moves forward to future events and then returns to the present
a shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure on screen
the overall system of relationships among the parts of a film
a single image on the strip of film. when a series of frames is projected onto a screen in quick succession, an illusion of movement is created.
In shooting, the number of frames exposed per second; in projection, the number of frames thrown on the screen per second.
Standard = 24 fps
European = 25 fps
Video = 23.98 fps, 24, 25, 30 and 60 fps
the use of the edges of the film frame to select and to compose what will be visible onscreen
Narrative film - the aspect of temporal manipulation that involves the number of times any story event is shown in the plot
types of films that audiences and filmmakers recognize by their familiar narrative conventions. Common genres = musicals, scifi, gangster and horror
the sue of the camera operator's body as a camera support, either holding it by hand or using a harness
Height of framing
the distance of the camera above the ground, regardless of the angle of framing
Internal diegetic sounds
sound represented as coming from the mind of a character within the story space. although we and the character can hear it, we assume that the other characters cannot
external diegetic sound
the viewers activity of analyzing the implicit and symptomatic meanings suggested in a film
an elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot. wither the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is small; a standing human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen
a shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot
Match on action
a continuity cut that splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted
Referential - allusion to particular items of knowledge outside the film that the viewer is expected to recognize
Explicit - significance presented overtly, usually in language and often near the films beginning or end
Implicit - significance left tacit, for the viewer to discover upon analysis or reflection
Symptomatic - significance that the film divulges, often against its will, by virtue of its historical or social context
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large; a human figure seen from the chest up would fill most of the screen
Medium long shot
a framing at a distance that makes an object about 4/5 feet high appear to fill most of the screen vertically.
plan americain - special term for a medium long shot depicting human figures
a framing in which the scale of the object shown is of moderate size; a human figure seen from the waist up would fill most of the screen
all of the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed: the setting and props, lighting, costumes and makeup, and figure behavior
the effect on the screen of the moving camera, a zoom lens, or certain special effects; the framing shifts in relation to the scene being photographed
a segment of a film that summarizes a topic or compresses a passage of time into brief symbolic or typical images. frequently, dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and wipes are used to link the images in a montage sequence.
the process through which the plot conveys or with holds story info. the narration can be more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters' perceptions and thoughts
a type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to one another through a series of casually related events taking place in time and space.