A statement that relates to lymphatic capillaries is:
a. endothelial cells have continous tight junctions
b. arterial end has higher pressure than venous end
c. minivalves prevent backflow of fluid into interstitial spaces
d. capillaries are open at both end
Mini valves prevent the back flow of fluid into the interstitial spaces
Lung collapse is prevented by
a. high surface tension of alveolar fluid
b. high surface tension of pleural fluid
c. high pressure in pleural cavities
d. high elasticity of lung tissue
high surface tension of pleural fluid
a. have complete epithelial capsule
b. have crypts to trap bacteria
c. filter blood
d. contain red pulp
have cyrpts to trap bacteria
Which of the following result from infection?
d. all of the above
All of the above
Which of the following is a cardinal sign of inflammation?
d. pale skin around the injury
An aleveolar sac
a. is an alveolus
b. relates to an alveolus as a bunch of grapes relates to one grape
c. is a huge, saclike alveolus in an emphysema patient
d. is the same as an alveolar duct
Relates to an alveolus as a bunch of grapes relates to one grape
Which of the following is an autoimmune disease?
a. gestational diabetes
b. multiple sclerosis
c. rhuematoid arthritis
Multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis
During inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is
a. greater than atmospheric pressure
b. less than atmospheric pressure
c. greater than intrapleural pressure
d. less than intrapleural pressure
Less than atmospheric pressure
The spleen functions to do all of the following EXCEPT
a. remove aged RBCs
b. house lymphocytes
c. filter lymph
d. store some blood components
What is the approximate alveolar ventilation rate in an individual with a tidal volume of 400 ml, anatomical dead space of 140 ml, and a respiratory rate of 20 bpm?
a. 10, 000 ml/min
b. 8000 ml/min
c. 5200 ml/min
d. 2800 ml/min
Which of the following is NOT a tonsil?
d. chemotactic agents
Which of the following is important for activation of B cell during antigen challenge?
a. the antigen
b. a helper T cell
c. chemicals that stimulate the B cells to divide
d. all of the above
All of the above
Class II MHC proteins are found on the cell-surface of all the following EXCEPT:
a. all body cells
c. activated B lymphocytes
d. some T cells
All body cells
Which of the following correctly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport?
a. chloride shift mechanism inhibits CO2 transport
b. 20% of CO2 is dissolved directly into plasma
c. carbonic anhydrase is responsible for converting CO2 to hemoglobin
d. 23% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
23% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is:
a. increase of CO2
b. pH (alkalosis)
c. loss of oxygen in tissues
d. pH (acidosis)
increase of CO2
Select the correct statement about lymph transport:
a. under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits
b. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
c. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins
d. lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
a. the size of the thymus increases continously from birth to death
b. the thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age
c. the thymus is not affected by age
d. the size of the thymus decreases continously from birth to death
The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age
Which of the following does not diminish lung compliance?
a. factors that block the bronchi
b. factors that decrease the surface tension of the fluid film of the alveoli
c. factors that reduce the natural resilience of the lungs
d. factors that impair the flexibility of the thoracic cage
Factors that decrease surface tension of fluid film of alveoli; factors that impair flexibility of the thoracic cage
a. interfere with viral replication within cells
b. are virus specific, so an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus
c. act by increasing the rate of cell division
d. are routinely used in nasal sprays for common colds
interfere with viral replication within cells
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by:
a. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
b. reducing its size
c. forming of a large # of cells that are unlike the original B cell
d. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
Lymph collecting or pooling from the lower extremities would first pool in the WHAT before moving on up:
a. inguinal nodes
b. thoracic duct
d. cisterna chyli
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
a. plasma proteins
c. red blood cells
Red blood cells
Which statement is true about T cells?
a. once activated, they cannot secrete cytokines
b. they will develop into cytotoxic T cells if antigen is complexed with class II MHC proteins
c. they usually directly recognize antigens, which then activates a subpopulation of killer cells
d. Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2
Explain the anatomical changes that occur during inhalation
The ribcage is pulled up and out by contraction of intercostal muscles
Lungs are expanded through adherence to thoracic cage and diaphragm by pleura
Lung volume increases, pressure decreases so air is sucked in
How does pneumonia effect volumes of the lungs?
Due to inflammation and fluid in the lungs, all volumes decrease.
How would gas exchange be altered and how would it affect someones respiration who has bacterial pneumonia?
Gas exchange decreases. Inflammation of alveoli and fluid collection prevent alveoli from inflating to full capacity, and restrict the amount of O2 getting to the respiratory membrane and CO2 from leaving
Blood pH would drop as CO2 rises; so body would increase respiratory rate to increase oxygen exchange. Her TV may be lesser or greater depending on pain. (More pain; shallower breaths)
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
a. type II diabetes
b. systemic lupus erthematosus
c. multiple sclerosis
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by
a. lymph nodes
b. medullary cords
c. plasma cells
d. T lymphocytes
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria, is
b. interferon production
c. complement fixation
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
a. contain many repeating chemical units
b. inhibit production of antibodies
c. small molecules
d. reactivity with an antibody
Reactivity with an antibody
a. include allergic contact dermatitis
b. include anaphylatic shock, a systemic vasodilation that results in inadequate blood delivery to all tissues
c. are mediated by B cells
d. do not involve T cells
include allergic contact dermatitis
Which of the following changes occurs as the conducting tubes of the lungs become smaller?
a. resistance to air flow decreases due to the increased number of tubes
b. smooth muscle amount increases
c. cartilage rings are gradually replaced by regular plates of cartilage
d. lining of tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium which lines alveoli
Lining of tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium which lines the alveoli
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is:
a. greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
b. not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules
c. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
d. about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin
Only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form
The oropharynx does not include:
b. pharyngeal tonsils
c. lingual tonsils
d. palatine tonsils
Which of the following statements is correct?
a. arterial pH does not affect central chemoreceptors directly
b. H+ has little effect on blood pH
c. low arterial pH is most powerful stimulator of respiration
d. H+ acts directly on central chemoreceptors to decrease rate and depth of breathing
Low arterial pH is most powerful stimulator of respiration
The larynx contains:
a. a cricoid cartilage also called Adams apple
b. upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds
c. lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds
d. the thyroid cartilage
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
a. it has memory
b. is it systemic
c. it is antigen-specific
d. it is specific for a given organ
It is specific for a given organ
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
a. passage of IgG antibodies from pregnant mother to fetus
b. long-term immune protection
c. booster shot
d. infusion of weakened viruses
passage of IgG antibodies from pregnant mother to fetus
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called:
a. vital capacity
b. reserve air
c. inspiratory reserve
d. expiratory reserve
The loudness of a person's voice depends on
a. the thickness of vestibular folds
b. length of the vocal folds
c. the force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
d. the strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles
The force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
Vital capacity is:
a. volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration
b. the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
c. air inspired after a tidal inhalation
d. the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is:
a. to trap dust and other debris
b. to secrete surfactant
c. to protect the lungs from bacterial invasion
d. to replace mucus in the alveoli
To secrete surfactant
Respiratory control centers are located in the:
a. midbrain and medulla
b. pons and midbrain
c. medulla and pons
d. upper spinal cord and medulla
Medulla and pons
With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because:
a. an increase in pH( alkalosis) weakens Hb-O2 bond
b. a decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the bond
c. a decrease in pH strengthens the bond
d. an increase in pH strengths the bond
A decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen
What factors affect the ability of Hb to carry oxygen?
Temperature, RBC metabolic ratem O2 availability, Bohr effect
CO has a much greater affinity for Hb than oxygen. Using your knowledge and the data presented in the graph, why is CO poisoning so dangerous?
CO binds Hb at much lower partial pressures, and binding is mostly irreversible. So, a small amount of CO will bind a lot of Hb, and will prevent Oxygen binding, decreasing Oxygen carrying capacity and availability for exchange. With prolonged exposure, oxygen carrying/saturation quickly falls to zero, and the person dies.
The exudate on Jason's tonsils consisted primarily of neutrophils, and the cbc that was performed indicated that the number of neutrophils in his circulation was increased. What role do neutrophils play in the resolution of a bacterial infection? In the course of your answer use the terms such as diapedesis, chemotaxsis, opsonization, and phagocytosis.
- neutrophils circulate through circulatory system, rolling off endothelium looking for am activated 'sticky area'
- neutrophils roll and stop using selections and adhesion molecules.
- once stopped they migrate to the junction between endothelial cells, which contract to make a gap
- neutrophils pass through (diapedesis), and migrate to area of infection via chemotaxis.
- at the site are complement proteins (leaked their via the leaky blood capillaries), which tag pathogens for destruction (opsonisation).
- tagged pathogens are phagocytosed by neutrophils, and destroyed.
Jason's physician noted that Jason's cervical lymph nodes were enlarged, a condition referred to as lymphadenopathy. Describe the basic structure and function(s) of lymph nodes.
encapsulated bean-like structure with more afferent than efferent lymph vessels attached so that entering ;lymph stagnates and filters slowly through the node to allow all T- and B-cells in the cortex and germinal centers to 'see' the fluid and detect possible pathogens. Macrophages are able to remove debris
What is the mechanism by which fever is induced and what are its benefits in terms of combating an infection?
Increase in pyrogens, reset hypothalamic thermostat = up metabolism, cell priliferation, iron sequestration and decrease viral replication.
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the:
a. lingual tonsils
b. pharyngeal tonsils
c. palatine tonsils
d. Peyer's tonsis
The pleura are vital to the integrity of the lungs because:
a. they contain cilia that protect the lungs
b. they control the volume of the lungs
c. they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing
d. they maintain proper temp of lungs during sleep
They produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing
The nose serves all of the following functions except:
a. cleansing the air
b. as a passageway for air movement
c. as the initiator of the cough reflex
d. warming and humidifying the air
As the initiator of the cough reflex
The only T cells that an directly attack and kill other cells are the:
a. cytotoxic cells
b. suppressor cells
c. plasma cells
d. helper cells
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
a. external respiration
b. blood pH adjustment
c. internal respiration
d. pulmonary ventilation
blood pH adjustment
When the lymphatics are blocked due to tumors, the result is:
a. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
b. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage
c. shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph
d. severe localized edema distal to the blockage
Severe localized edema distal to the blockage
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by:
a. T lymphocytes
b. B lymphocytes
c. natural killer cells
Natural killer cells
Functions of the lymphatic system include:
a. transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system
b. maintenance of blood pressure in the venous circulation
c. transport of red blood cells to the blood vascular system
d. excretion of excess dietary fat
Transport of excess tissue fluid to the blood vascular system
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the :
b. lymph nodes
d. bone marrow
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
Allergic contact dermatitis
Cytotoxic T cells:
a. function mainly to stimulate the proliferation of other T cell populations
b. self-destruct once the antigen has been neutralized
c. are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
d. require the double recognition signal of MHC I and MHC II on the target cell in order to function
Require the double recognition signal of MHC I and MHC II on the target cell in order to function
Intrapulmonary pressure is the:
a. difference b/w atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
b. pressure within the pleural cavity
c. negative pressure in the intrapleural space
d. pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Difference between the atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
c. peyer's patches of the intestine
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
b. respiratory bronchiles
c. alveolar ducts
d. alveolar sacs
Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue:
a. once the lymphocyte enters the lymhoid tissue, it resides there permanently
b. lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood
c. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances
d. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular CT
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular CT
Which center is located in the pons?
d. pacemaker neuron cetner
a. requires exposure to an antigen
b. is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
c. prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader
d. occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system
Is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts
a. Xenogratfs are b/w individuals of the same species
b. Allogratfs are b/w different species
c. Isografts are b/w identical twins
d. Autogratfs are b/w 2 genetically identical individuals
Isografts are b/w identical twins
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation, and how does each relate to changes in the blood vessels at a site of inflammation?
Heat (dilation of vessels increases flow to the surface, heating up the area), swelling (vascular permeability increases as capillaries become leaky), redness (vascular dilation brings blood to surface), pain (squeezing of tissue by extra fluid, and prostaglandins being brougt to the area by the increased flow).