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identification review for semester one final in mr. white's class

torah

sacred jewish text; first 5 books of old testament; laws and customs

abraham

father of israelites; made special covenant with god; first jewish guy

hittites

first to extract iron from ore; used the iron for weapons

ziggurat

religious temple/site in ancient societies; worshiping and sacrificing might occur there

hammurabi's code

1st ever attempt to write down the laws of a society--bablyon

cultural diffusion

spread of ideas, customs, technologies; occurs during migration, trade, and war

socrates

teacher of plato; used a method of questioning to invoke thought from students; died after drinking hemlock as a punishment for corrupting athens' youth

plato

student of socrates; distrusted democracies; wrote "The Republic"

aristotle

plato's student; developed "golden mean"; founded Lyceum; alexander the great's teacher

alexander the great

conquered LARGE empire including egypt, persia, india; combined cultures at a high level;

acropolis

location of temples in greek cities dedicated gods and goddesses;

athens

philosophical and artistic and democratic society; strong navy

sparta

militaristic society; education was minimal; discipline was key; most of work done by slaves; strong army

julius caesar

essentially ended Rome Republic by taking over; put down many rebellions; assassinated by senators who feared his power; developed special calendar

hannibal

carthaginian general who wanted revenge on rome; led army including elephants to rome through alps

cuneiform

earliest form of writing; creation of sumerians; system of pictographs

great schism

official split between roman catholic (west) and orthodox (east) churches; based on a difference of opinion on icons

five pillars

duties of islams including: declaration of faith, prayer, alms, ramadan, hajj

quran

holy scriptures of islam; based on bible and torah

shiite

muslims who believe the leader of the muslims should be a descendant of Muhammad

sunni

muslims who believe the leader of muslims should be the most qualified

sufi

muslims; worshipped god by meditating, fasting, and dancing

akbar the great

builder of mughal empire; preached/practiced tolerance; built good government through diverse advisors and qualified workers

Justinian

emperor of byzantine empire (rome); put laws together into a code; built the hagia sofia (a nice church)

gothic

architectural type; defined by flying buttresses; spires, and gargoyles...many cathedrals are built in this style

thomas aquinas

wrote summa theologica; determined faith and reason exist in harmony...and proved it in his book; now a saint

magna carta

signed in England by King John; protected nobles certain rights like habeus corpus; laid foundation for limited power governments

dante alighieri

Italian poet; wrote Divine Comedy--story about a journey through purgatory and hell

william the conqueror

only person to ever conquor england as an outsider; wrote the domesday book to help run country; one of the first to solidify the power of the king

council of clermont

when Pope Urban II called all christians to wage war against the "infidels" and take back the holy land; beginning of the Crusades

concordant of worms

settled the feud that started with Henry IV and Gregory VII (lay investiture); church could elect and name bishops...not emperors

papal supremacy

declaration that churches had more authority than emperors/governments; exemplified by Innocent III and Gregory VII

colbert

finance minister for louis xiv; mercantalist policies; made a france a very wealthy nation

versailles

palace for louis xiv; represented teh wealth, power, and excess of the french monarchy

oliver cromwell

leader of the roundheads during english civil war; led england when it was the "commonwealth"; led as dictator; puritan

commonwealth

name given to england when oliver cromwell was "lord protector"; occured after english civil war and between Charles I and charles II

charles I

"absolute" monarch of england, refused to sign petition of right, treated parliament and foes badly; eventually executed by parliament

charles II

signed petition of right; was catholic but allowed church of england; ruled after commonwealth

long parliament

during charles I reign in england; was in session when english civil war broke out; refused to adjourn because of their distrust of charles I

missi dominici

provencial rulers of charlemagne; enforced rules and collected taxes

3 field system

method of crop rotation to make soil last longer: used grain, legumes, and nothing

benedictine rule

monastic life guidelines; obedience, chastity, and poverty

treaty of verdun

after charlemagne's death, split his empire into 3 for his grandsons; empire never recovered

charlemagne

leader of franks; united western europe; spread christianity; named holy roman emperor by leo III

innocent iii

implemented/solidified the concept of papal supremacy; made the papal office extreme powerful

abu bakr

muhammad's father in law; succeeded him leader of the muslims

geoffrey chaucer

english writer; wrote canterbury tales about a group of people travelling to st. thomas more's grave

joan of arc

french teen who got message from god to save france; she did; later captured and burned at stake as heretic; now a saint

suleiman the magnificent

greatest ottoman ruler; expanded ottoman lands in all directions

babur

founder of the mughal empire; military genius; grandfather of akbar the great

charles martel

leader of franks; defeated muslims at battle of tours; probably prevented europe from becoming muslim

feudalism

in medieval europe; used for protection of all peoples from attackers; a governing system and an economic system

mecca

#1 holy city for muslims; birthplace of muhammad; location of kaaba; destination of hajj

edict of nantes

issued by henry iv to protect huguenots; revoked by louis xiv

cardinal richelieu

advisor to louis xiii; believed in absolutism

charles v

holy roman emperor; member of hapsburg famly; father of phillip ii

phillip ii

defender of catholic faith; sent spanish armada to destruction

escorial

estate of phillip ii; included a church

absolutism

belief that rulers only answered to god; rulers got power through divine right

spanish armada

phillip's attempt to rid the world of elizabeth and england; was unsuccessful; bad leadership and bad weather

louis xiv

absolute ruler in france; ruled for a long time; ran france into ground after colbert died with bad decisions; playboy and partier

inquistion

court set up by catholics to defend the faith; also tried to reconvert people to catholicism

copernicus

first to say the sun is the center of the universe; did not actually prove it

galileo

improved telescope; proved copernicus's theory; had to rescind beliefs in front of inquisition

francis bacon

believed experimentation was the way to truth

rene descartes

believed logic was the way to truth; together with bacon's idea set stage for the scientific method

isaac newton

developed calculus, laws of motion, and theory of gravity

glorious revolution

bloodless transfer of power in england; brought in william and mary as rulers and english bill of rights

english bill of rights

signed by william and mary; gave rights to british citizens never guaranteed before; precursor to american version

limited monarcy

type of government in england after glorious revolution; when a king/queen shares power with a governing body

william and mary

rulers of england after glorious revolution; signed english bill of rights

30 years war

devasting war in europe between protestants/catholics; also between monarchs/princes; left europe seriously depopulated

peace of westphalia

ended 30 years war

hapsburg

family name of austrian and spanish rulers

prince henry

architect of portuguese exploration; invented caravel

vasco da gama

first to reach india going around cape of good hope; sailed for portugal

christopher columbus

sailed west to get to india; reached "new world"; sailed for spain

treaty of tordesillas

decided by pope alexander; split up new world between spain and portugal at the Line of Demarcation

ferdinand magellan

1st to circumnavigate the world; sailed for spain; died on journey in phillipines

boers

dutch farmers in south africa; first european settlers in africa; calvinist beliefs

renaissance

time of new learning and ideas after the middle ages

medici family

ruled florence, italy; major patron of the arts

leonardo da vinci

1st "renaissance man"; painted last supper and mona lisa

michelangelo

painted ceiling of sistine chapel and sculpted david

machiavelli

wrote "the prince"; gave direction to rulers as to how to keep power and rule well

gutenberg

german inventor of movable-type printing press; truly changed the world

shakespeare

wrote romeo and juliet; wrote 36 other plays; great linguist

martin luther

wrote 95 theses; attacked corruption of catholic church; excommunicated from catholic church for beliefs; believed salvation came through faith and bible, not deeds; ideas became basis for protestant reformation

indulgences

sold by church to raise money; allowed believers to bypass purgatory and go straight to heaven

95 theses

list of complaints against the catholic church by martin luther; posted on the front door of a church in wittenburg, germany

peace of augsburg

agreement between german princes that allowed each of them to choose the religion of their territory; necessary because of the growth of the reformation

john calvin

developed a faith based on closeness to god; founded a society in switzerland for this group

predestination

belief that god has already decided what will happen to everything and everyone; big belief of john calvin

henry viii

started church of england when pope would not annul marriage to catherine; ended up having 6 wives; father of edward vi, mary tudor, and elizabeth

catherine of aragon

1st wife of henry viii; catholic; mother of mary tudor; henry wanted divorce because she did not give him a son

mary tudor

catholic daughter of henry viii and catherine of aragon; became queen after edward vi; ruled as staunch catholic; attacked all protestants and their beleifs; married phillip ii of spain

anne boleyn

2nd wife of henry viii; mother of elizabeth; beheaded for treason when she did not give henry viii a son

act of supremacy

law passed by parliament naming henry viii the leader of the church of england; officially broke off the england from the catholic church forever

elizabethan settlement

policy by elizabeth allowing both catholics and protestantst to worship in england freely; very much calmed england after the tumultuous rule of mary tudor

jesuits

faction of catholic priests who tried to preserve and expand the catholic faith; education was also important to them

ignatius loyola

founder of the jesuits

maria theresa

leader of austria; first major successful women monarch; reorganized government and saved austria from being overtaken because of her leadership

hohenzollern

family name of prussian leaders

frederick william i

established prussia as a european power; developed an outstanding army for his country; his used that army to expand territory

peter the great

russian leader who tried to westernize russia; also attempted to gain a warm water port for russia

catherine the great

leader of russia; attained warm water port for russia; suppressed power of nobles and made life even tougher for peasants

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