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EXAM 3 Mastering Biology

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

in the stroma

Where does the Calvin cycle occur?

water ... NADPH

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

Photophosphorylation

Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?

False.
The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the flow of electrons through an electron transport chain generates a proton gradient that leads to the synthesis of ATP.

True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.

Proton gradient

According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?

Protons

Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?

False.
The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes ATP production protrudes out of, but does not span, the chloroplast membrane; the region that spans the membrane is an ion channel through which protons can pass.

True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.

ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.

Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?

Photosynthesis

Which process produces oxygen?

The light-dependent reactions

Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?

The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.

What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?

True

True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.

NADPH

Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?

They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.

What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?

The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?

Regneration of RuBP

Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?

Glucose

What is the correct molecule that is the main product of the Calvin cycle?

CO2 is fixed or incorporated into organic molecules.

What is the basic role of CO2 in photosynthesis?

A

Select the most accurate statement describing the basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis:
A)The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy.
B)The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the production of glucose.
C)The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the trapping of light energy.

Phosphate, Base, Deoxyribose

What are the biological molecular components common in a typical cell to assemble DNA pyrimidine nucleotide?

E

Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule?

A)DNA contains uracil, whereas RNA contains thymine.
B)DNA contains nitrogenous bases, whereas RNA contains phosphate groups.
C)DNA is a polymer composed of nucleotides, whereas RNA is a polymer composed of nucleic acids.
D)DNA contains five-carbon sugars, whereas RNA contains six-carbon sugars.
E)DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded.

sugar with two, and not three, oxygen atoms

You can tell that this is an image of a DNA nucleotide and not an RNA nucleotide because you see a _____.

thymine

Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA?

Pyrimidines are single-ring structures. Cytosine, thymine, and uracil.

Which of these is(are) pyrimidines?

two linked-ring structures. guanine and adenine

Which of these are purines?

1' ... 5'

In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon.

5' to 3'

Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction.

thymine ... cytosine

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

After DNA replication is completed, _____.

helicase
The first step of DNA replication is unwinding the DNA double helix.

The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.

the transition region between paired and unpaired DNA strands.

What is a replication fork?

replication forks and replication bubbles

The action of helicase creates _____.

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.
The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.

template

An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.

DNA polymerase

What catalyzes DNA synthesis?

B

Which of the following statements about DNA synthesis is true?

A) DNA polymerase adds dNTP monomers in the 3' to 5' direction.
B) Primers are short sequences that allow the initiation of DNA synthesis.
C) Nucleotides are added in a random fashion to single-stranded DNA.
D) As DNA polymerase moves along the template strand, each new nucleotide provides a 5' hydroxyl group for the next reaction to occur.

Phosphate group
The potential energy stored in the bonds of the phosphates provides the energy for DNA synthesis.

Which part of a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) molecule provides the energy for DNA synthesis?

Primase

Which of the following enzymes creates a primer for DNA polymerase?

D

Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments in E. coli is true?

A) They are synthesized in the 3' to 5' direction.
B) They are usually 50 to 500 bases long.
C)They are sealed together by the action of helicase.
D)They are formed on the lagging strand of DNA.

Topoisomerase

Which of the following enzymes is important for relieving the tension in a helix as it unwinds during DNA synthesis?

true

True or false? Single-stranded DNA molecules are said to be antiparallel when they are lined up next to each other but oriented in opposite directions.

Transcription

What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?

D

DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

A) Messenger RNA
B) DNA
C) Proteins
D) Organelles

A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
The promoter is the regulatory region of a protein-coding gene at which RNA polymerase must bind to initiate transcription—it is not transcribed into the RNA.

Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?

Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?

B

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?

A) Covalently bound
B)Complementary
C)Permanently base-paired
D)Identical

It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?

B

Which of the following is/are inputs required for photosynthesis?
A) Oxygen
B) Carbon Dioxide
C) NADH + H+
D) Glucose
E) more than one of the above

Stroma

The Calvin Cycle occurs in the

Carbon Dioxide

Calvin Cycle Input

ATP and NADPH + H+

Non-cyclic photophosphorylation produces (outputs)?

False

A researcher isolates a chloroplast and decreases the pH inside the individual thylakoids. Assuming that there is abundant light energy and CO2 and that there are no other changes to this chloroplast indicate whether the following statement if True or False.

This chloroplast will produce more G3P or glucose than a control chloroplast under the same light and CO2 conditions

True

Based on the previous question indicate whether the following statement is True or False.

The experimental chloroplast will produce more ATP than the control chloroplast.

True

Based on the preceding two questions indicate whether the following statement is True or False.

If the researcher also increased the concentration of NADPH +H+ in the stroma of the experimental chloroplast, but not the control, the experimental chloroplast would produce more G3P or glucose.

sugar-phosphate bonds

The backbone of a DNA strand is composed of

Guanine

In DNA which nitrogenous base would pair with cytosine?

nitrogenous bases

Hydrogen bonds must be broken during the process of DNA replication. These bonds occur between?

modified guanine nucleotide

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.

a long string of adenine nucleotides

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.

snRNPs and other proteins

Spliceosomes are composed of _____.

exons

The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.

cytoplasm

Translation occurs in the _____.

2

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

1) GTTACG
CAATCG

2)GTTACG
CAAUGC

3)GTTACG
GTTACG

4)GTTACG
ACCGTA

5)GTTACG
UAACAU

5' —> 3'

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?

CUG

The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.

P

The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.

False
A codon is a group of three bases that can specify only one amino acid.

True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.

C
A knock-out mutation refers to the loss of a protein's function but not necessarily to its complete absence.

Which of the following statements about mutations is false?
A) Addition and deletion mutations disrupt the primary structure of proteins.
B) A deletion mutation results in the loss of a base in the DNA sequence.
C) A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein.
D) An addition mutation results in an added base in the DNA sequence.

Deletion

If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred?

One addition and one deletion mutation.

Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)?

two

If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein?

An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.

If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred?

Jacob and Monod

The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.

C

Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
A) lactose-utilization genes only
B) promoter only
C) regulatory gene only
D)operator only
E) promoter and operator

the operator

Regulatory proteins bind to _____.

not transcribed

In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.

DNA polymerase

During DNA replication the enzyme responsible for making the DNA strand is:

CCGGTAAT

If the sequence of nucleotides is



GGCCATTA



what is the sequence of DNA nucleotides on the complementary strand of DNA?

True

True or false: During transcription the mRNA strand is produced anti-parallel to the template DNA strand.

5' GGCCUUAA

Transcribe the DNA sequence shown below.



5' TTAAGGCC

introns

During the editing of the initial transcript in a eukaryote what is removed from the sequence?

nucleus

In eukaryotes the mRNA must be processed prior to translation. Where does this mRNA processing occur?

82 (divide by 3)

A mRNA molecule contains 246 nucleotides, what is the maximum number of amino acids in the polypeptide translated from this mRNA?

protein

Translation uses the information in mRNA to guide the synthesis of

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