A&P - Chapter 5 - The Integumentary System

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Created for Anatomy & Physiology students at Christian Life School

4 Major Cells of the Epidermis

Keratinocytes
Melanocytes
Merkel cells
Langerhans cells

Define Keratinocyte

Deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous protein) and help protect

Define Melanocyte

Make dark skin pigment melanin; more is produced to fight off UV rays and to protect the nucleus

Define Langerhans cell

Branching macrophage-like cells that activate the immune response

Define Merkel cell

Associated with sensory nerve endings (sensory reception)

5 Layers of Thick Skin of the Epidermis

Because Soda Gives Lotsa Caffeine

Stratum Basale
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum

2 Layers of the Dermis

Reticular
Papillary

Describe Papillary Layer

Made of areolar connective tissue
Includes dermal papillae
Thicker on the hands and feet to help with gripping ability and increase friction

Describe Reticular Layer

"Reticulum" (network) of collagen and reticular fibers that give strength and resiliency and prevents damage
80% of dermis

Describe how a fingerprint is formed

Dermal papillae lie atop dermal ridges which elevate the overlying epidermis into epidermal ridges. The sweat from pores in these ridges leave "sweat films" on surfaces.

3 Major pigments of the skin and the colors they each give

Melanin--yellow to red-brown to black
Carotene--gives an orange-yellow color
Hemoglobin: gives a pinkish color

Describe why a person tans

Created by melanin being produced rapidly and the DNA in the nucleus is protected from UV radiation by the melanin's absorbing & dissipating energy as heat. The more sun exposure, the more melanin is produced.

Dermal tearing

Stretch marks; produces silvery white scars when the dermis is torn

Blisters

Occurs when the epidermis and dermis separate causing a fluid filled pocket

Freckles and moles

Local accumulations of melanin

Cyanosis

Occurs when hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated & people have a bluish look to them

Erythema

Redness; red color due to blushing, fever, hypertension, or allergy

Pallor

Also known as blanching; paleness due to fear or anger

Jaundice

Yellow hue to skin due to liver producing too much bile and it gets to the blood

Bronzing

Metallic appearance of skin due to liver disorder, meds, iron disorder

Hematoma

Bruises; blood clots under the skin

Albinism

Inability to produce melanin giving people a very pale (almost white) appearance

Vitiligo

Partial or complete loss of melanocytes producing patchy white spots

Four types of Sweat Glands

Eccrine
Apocrine
Ceruminous
Mammary

Eccrine

Most numerous
Abundant on palms, soles of feet, forehead
Made of true sweat: 99% water, some salts, traces of waste
Functions to prevent overheating

Apocrine

Found in the axillary, anal and genital areas only
Begins to function at puberty
The organic molecules in these glands decompose with time and when mixed with bacteria causes odor

Ceruminous

Found in ear canal.
Functions to secrete cerumen (earwax) that helps keep out foreign bodies

Mammary

Found in breasts
Functions to secrete milk for babies

What occurs when a sebaceous gland becomes blocked?

When a sebaceous gland is blocked, a whitehead forms. When oxidation of the whitehead occurs, a blackhead is formed. This can lead to a bacterial infection causing acne (usually caused by staphylococcus bacteria).

Layers of hair

Medulla
Cortex
Cuticle

Define Medulla

Contains large cells & air spaces (the more air the thicker the hair)

Define Cortex

Surrounds medulla and is made of several layers of flat cells

Define Cuticle

Outermost layer of single overlapping cells

Seborrhea

Cradle cap; occurs when an overflow of sebum causes lesions on a baby's scalp

Hair root

The part of the hair embedded in skin

Hair shaft

The part of the hair that projects from scalp (above skin surface)

Hair bulb

Deep end of the follicle that is below the skin surface; base of hair follicle

Root hair plexus

Hair follicle receptor; contains sensory nerve endings that wrap around each hair bulb

Root sheath

Two part covering of the hair root (bulb) made of connective & epithelial tissue

Hair matrix

Area on hair where cells are constantly dividing (causes hair growth)

Arrector pili

Smooth muscle that allows for movement of hair and makes hair 'stand up'

Three types of hair

Vellus
Terminal
Lanugo

Define Vellus

Fine, short hair of children and adult females

Define Terminal

Longer, courser hair in axillary and anogenital regions and all over male body

Define Lanugo

Fine hair covering of fetuses due to lack of fat

Hirsutism

Excessive hairiness due to tumors in women

Alopecia

Spots of hair loss in both men and women

Male pattern baldness

When hair doesn't emerge from hair follicles before being shed

Function of Nails

Functions to help pick up objects, scratch an itch, and protect the nail bed

Be able to label these parts of a nail

Free edge
Nail body
Nail root
Nail bed
Nail matrix
Lunula
Nail folds
Eponychium
Hyponychium

Functions of the Integumentary System

Peanut Butter Can Make Bob Excited
Protection--the skin contains chemical, physical, and biological barriers that defend against bacteria, viruses, and any other invaders.
Body Temperature Regulation--we sweat to cool off and shiver to keep warm and maintain homeostasis
Cutaneous sensation--our bodies contain cells that help feel a 'caress' or clothes on skin and protect us from injuring ourselves
Metabolic functions--skin allows us to help make Vitamin D, to disarm cancer-causing chemicals, and activate steroid hormones
Blood Reservoir--skin holds 5% of blood volume so when extra blood is needed, the dermis helps out
Excretion--skin helps rid body of wastes like salts, ammonia, urea, & uric acid

Explain Basal Cell Carcinoma

*Most common skin cancer and least malignant
*Comes from the Stratum Basale
*Overexposure to the sun is the major cause of this and most types of skin cancers
*Those who work outside are at a greater risk
*Fairer skinned people are more susceptible
*Warning signs include: open sores that bleed or ooze; reddish patches on the shoulders arms, and legs; shiny bumps that are transluscent; pink growths
*Treatments include: removal of the area using local anesthetic; topical chemotherapy; radiation

Explain Squamous Cell Carcinoma

*The second most common skin cancer
*Starts in the Stratum Spinosum
*Caused by chronic overexposure to the sun
*Rim of ear and lower lip are especially vulnerable
*Fair skinned people with lighter hair and light eyes are at a greater risk
*Warning signs include: wart-like growth that crusts and bleeds; a scaly, red patch of skin with irregular borders that may crust or bleed; open sores that crust or bleed for weeks
*Treatments include: several types of surgery to remove the affected area; radiation treatments

Explain Malignant Melanoma

*Most serious form of skin cancer
*Accounts for 5% of all skin cancers
*It can occur anywhere that melanin is found
*Chronic sun exposure is a risk factor, as well as moles, fair skin, a family history, and a weakened immune system
*Moles, brown spots, and growths on the skin are warning signs
*Treatments include surgical excision when caught early, otherwise this cancer is fatal
*Use ABCDE's to check for melanoma

ABCDE's of Melanoma

A - Asymmetry - if the two sides of a pigmented spot do not match
B - Border irregularity - if the edges of a spot are scalloped or notched
C - Colors - if there are a variety of shades of color
D - Diameter larger than 6 mm or the size of a pencil eraser
E - Elevation - if the spot is raised at all

Degrees of Burns & what layers of skin are injured in each

First degree - epidermis is damaged
Second degree - epidermis and upper dermis are damaged
Third degree - injury to entire dermis and epidermis

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