governing body of the US that existed from 1781-89. compromised of delegates appointed by the legislatures of the states. successor of second continental congress
founding father of the US, author, political theorist, diplomat-earned the title as "first american" for his campaign for colonial unity. first US ambassador to France
first treasurer of the US, a federalist, unhappy with the articles of confederation and the weak gov. called for national convention to reconstruct gov.
political thinker who created Virginia Plan and did most of the drafting of the US constitution. He helped resolve the 2 important philosophical questions: limiting power and sovereignty
-republican who coauthored Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
how could both the national government and the state governments exercise sovereignty at the same time? where did the ultimate sovereignty lie?
The Virginia Plan
Madison's idea of a strong national government set up of two houses, the lower house elected by the pple and the upper elected by the lwr (bicameral legislature)
The New Jersey Plan
preserved the existing one house legislature allowing each state to have equal rep. and congress to have more pwr to taxing and regulating (William Paterson)
the Great Compromise
was a proposal created by the "grand committee" Its most important achievement was solving the problems of rep. the proposal would allow the states to be rep. in the lwr gov. based on their pop.
slaves only counted as 3/5 of a person b/c gov. believed slave only did 3/5 work
Separation of Powers
split the powers in the gov. so no one person had supreme power
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington's called for commercial but not political links to other countries, he also stressed the need for unity
political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, during the administration of John Adams, that Americans interpreted as an insult from France and led to the Quasi--war. Widespread outrage at French action
Alien and Sedition Acts
way to keep republicans quiet. the alien act placed obstacles on those who wanted to become an american citizen and strengthened the presidents hand in dealing w/ the foreigners. The sedition act allowed the gov. to prosecute those who engaged in defiance against the gov.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
used John Locke's ideas to argue Alien and Sedition acts were unconstitutional, written in 1789-99 anonymously by Jefferson and Madison
supported the constitution, supported strong central gov., aristocraic, only president John Adams
felt that weakening the state would lead to the onset of aristocracy and oppressive gov. power. Mostly hard core revolutionaries and small farmers. Wanted constitution to include bill of rights
the federalist papers
greatest contribution to political theory. it was a book of essays written by Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison. written to influence ratification of constituition
judiciary act of 1789
congress provided the supreme court with svc members. 13 district courts had one judge apiece, 3 circuit courts of appeal w/ one district judge and 2 supreme court justices
chief justice of US supreme court and NY federalist. commissioner to England. created treaty that compensated America for British attacks on American ships demanding British to withdraw from frontier posts and aided commercial economy
French diplomat who wanted to recruit Americans against British but his actions endangered American neutrality act
a virginian who began the discussion of establishing a national government consisting of supreme court legislature, executive, and judiciary
president at the time of alien and sedition acts. was cautious in implementing laws that are signed. he did not deport aliens and did not let the government launch a mayor crusade against the republicans
Bill of Rights
amendments to the US constitution that protected the rights of citizens from overstepping of the federal gov. these freedoms include freedom of speech, press, religion the formation of a militia, the bearing of arms, and privacy
a tax protest in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their grain in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax. The tax was a part of Alexander Hamilton's program to increase central government power, in particular to fund his policy of assuming the war debt of those states which had failed to pay. The farmers, who resisted, many war veterans, were fighting for the principles of the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation.
America still forming relationship with England. Led to: withdrawal of British troops from land it failed to relinquish, helped avert war
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election. Federalists had established a strong nat. gov. but sometimes failed to honor principle that american gov. must be responsive to the pple. and had allowed policies that alienated gorups
killed Alexander Hamilton in duel which ended his political career
a New Jersey statesmen, associate justice of us supreme court and signer of constitution who served as 2nd gov. of NJ (NJ Plan)
Electoral College System
consists of the electors appointed by each state who formally elect the president and vp of the us
a body of high ranking gov. officials typically rep. the executive branch
a military officer of the continental army and later the US army and also served as the first US secretary of war
Bank of the United States
built in 1791 was proposed by Hamilton first session of congress. created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central gov (est. credit, financial order, clarity, resolved issue of first currency)
inland tax on the sale, or production for sale, of specific goods or a tax on a good produced for sale, or sold, within a country or licenses for specific activities.
report on manufactures of 1791
Hamilton presented to Congress,scheme to stimulate growth of industry in US
the federalist party
first american political party. controlled gov until 1801. formed by Alexander Hamilton.
the republican party
leaders were James Madison, Thomas Jefferson,. believed that party best represented the interests of the people, formed comittees and societies
Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)
formal announcement issued by George W. in 1793 declaring nation neutral in conflict b/w france and britain. threatened legal proceedings against any american providing assistance to any country aat war
Pinckney Treaty (1793)
est. intentions of friendship b/w US and Spain. guaranteed US navigation rights on the Mississippi river, American border along north of Florida, required Spanish authorities to prevent the Indians from launching raids across Florida border
Judiciary Act of 1801
rep. and effort to solve an issue in US Supreme Court during 19th century. llowed President John Adams to nominate members of his own Federalist party to sixteen Circuit and five new District judge positions. These "midnight appointments" of judges and other court officials occurred just before he left office. After taking office, the Jefferson Administration asked Congress to repeal the Act.