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AP Euro Test V

Queen Ann

sister of Mary II; succeeded William and Mary; had 17 children, but each were miscarried, stillborn, or died after birth before her; because she had no male heir, Parliament offers the crown to George of Hanover Hesse and he accepts

George I

Elector of Hanover and the first Hanoverian King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1727 (1660-1727); he was called "German George" and neither lived in England nor spoke English; because of Parliament's increasing power, this doesn't matter very much

Whigs

a Faction in Great Britain's politics that believed:
1) in the power of Parliament over the Monarchy (they're the ones who make George king-he is a limited monarch)
2) in a weak Monarchy
3) Wide Church: it shouldn't be strict; accept dissenters (but definitely not Catholics)
4) the importance of trade; they don't think they're above it: not afraid to get their hands dirty

Tories

a Faction in Great Britain's politics that believed:
1) in the power of the Monarchy; it is made up of a lot of king's men (they threaten Parliament to get the real king back)
2) High Church: Elizabeth's Anglican Church with all the pomp of Catholicism and the book of Common Prayer
3) Land
-they are the "Loyalists" in the American Revolution

Parliament

French word for "assembly" or "gathering;" used to be made just of noble in the House of Lords, but in the 14th century the House of Commons was added; how a decision is made: passes Commons, goes to Lords, goes to King to approve; the King can always threaten to make more Lords to get his way; the party in power is chosen by who has the majority in Parliament

House of Commons

represents everyone but the titleholders (even their families); originally 558 seats; you must be elected to it; you must own land or property

Rotten Boroughs

Rural town in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters; usually the person who owns the land

Old Sarum

14th century town->16th century ruins->18th century doesn't exist at all; a rotten borough

Pocket Borough

an area of England where the local landlord had the only vote and usually elected himself to Parliament because he had the borough "in his pocket"

Robert Walpole

has a seat in the House of Commons from 1721-1742; he is a leader in Commons; he is a Whig; essentially becomes the government of George I as the 1st minister, or the "Prime Minister;" makes England have the largest and best navy (England isn't a huge fan of standing armies...) and increases trade; "Let the sleeping dog lie:" avoids war at all costs and lets the colonies in America be and trade how they want; London becomes the leading banking city in Europe; Tories will be out of power; he phases the South Sea Bubble

War of Jenkins' Ear/ War of the Austrian Succession

starts when a British merchant sailor named Captain Jenkins smuggles goods to South America, and a Spanish ship takes them over and cuts of Jenkins' ear; Jenkins keeps it in rum and brings it back to England to show Parliament, who is looking for an excuse to go to war with Spain;

South Sea Bubble

The South Sea Company was a British joint stock company that traded in South America during the 18th century. Founded in 1711, the company was granted a monopoly to trade in Spain's South American colonies as part of a treaty during the War of Spanish Succession. In return, the company assumed the national debt England had incurred during the war. Speculation in the company's stock led to a great economic bubble known as the South Sea Bubble in 1720, which caused financial ruin for many. In spite of this it was restructured and continued to operate for more than a century after the Bubble.

Holland

they trade spices; only country to make money off of their colonies in the long run because they don't invest, they just get money out of them; they are the only country to trade with China (they get tea)

Sugar

it is the newest sweetener; replaces honey; used in the new fad: coffee; colonies are perfect to grow it, especially the Carribean; in the Carribean, the islands that grow sugar are called the "Sugar Islands" and are run mostly on slave labor; they can distill its product, molasses, to make rum

tobacco

The primary staple crop of early Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina that saved Jamestown; becomes popular in Europe after it is introduced from the colonies to smoke in cigars or pipes and to chew

American colonies' products

tobacco, rice, timber, hemp, naval stores

naval stores

Materials used to build and maintain ships, such as tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine

Louis XV

grandson of Louis XIV who succeeded him upon his death at the age of 9; was the king of France from 1715 to 1774; because of his young age, his regent was Louis XIV's brother Phillip's son, Duke of Orleans; he led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)

Philippe I, Duke of Orleans

Louis XIV's brother who's son is regent for Louis XV; his mother raised him as a girl so he wouldn't be competition for his brother; he is bisexual but marries and has a family

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

son of Philippe I who acted as Louis XV's regent during the beginning of his reign; he slowly allows the nobility to reassert their power

Parlement of Paris

most powerful court that competed with the monarchy for political power, controlled by French nobles

John Law

a Scotsman who offered the French Crown a way to pay off their debt: the foundation of a trading company called the Mississippi Company

Mississippi Bubble

shares at first skyrocket in the hopes of making a fortune; helps to found New Orleans; it is never capable of backing the huge price of the shares; the government issues more bank notes than it has coinage; the bubble bursts and tons of people loose money; Law is forced to flee France; had it worked, France probably could have used it to pay off their debts; this makes it impossible to get the French people to invest in their government

taille

tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government; the nobles won't pay it and the government can't make them, so the government turns to the Church

Vingtieme

because the nobles don't pay, the French government needs money so they turn to the Church for money but this is the 1st time it has ever been taxed (1745); the Church collects tithe (10%); when the government asks for gifts they give them, but now they're outraged; they refuse to pay it; it is called this because it is a 20% tax; it is sporadically collected; eventually in 1750 the government gives up

Rene de Maupeau

he is Louis's XV's 1st Minister who advises him to shut down the Parlement of Paris; now there are no more parlements

France

it is an absolute monarchy and still a major power, but it is having a lot of internal problems; has about 700,000 troops stationed at the border and inside, also has a decent navy;

Austria

absolute monarchy; slowly but surely throwing back the Turks

Prussia

absolute monarchy (modeled off of Louis XIV's France) and military state (every young man must join- huge reserve); expanding territory to the east; acquired Pomerania; within a matter of years it has a professional army of 200,000 troops, all Prussian; requires every man between the ages of 18-36 to serve in the army; he makes Prussia a military state; nobility is not called to serve, but they must be officers; middle class artisans are not soldiers; 1st country to require education (including women) (they need educated soldiers); they create a "General Directory for Finance, War, and Domain"

Poland

no strong central government; king is elected but does not have much power; it is divided into factions that only unite to fight other powers

England

major player, but limited monarchy; has a small standing army (bad memories); has the largest and best navy

Russia

Orthodox Christian (not Catholic); use the Greek alphabet; they have contact with the West; Mongols take over (the Khans-Golden Horde); gold is used as tribute; under Peter the Great it is becoming more Westernized; it is expanding to the east; by the end of Peter the Great's life, it is a power to be reckoned with; an absolute state; has a professional army of 300,000; they want a navy on the Black Sea but the Turks won't let them

Ivan IV

first Czar of Russia; made many reforms; created a council that included members from all classes; set up secret police; he was learned, religious, and cruel ("the Terrible"), and possibly mentally ill, which explains his outbreaks of cruelty and insanity; he killed his heir, his own son; saw treason everywhere and arrested, exiled, or executed many advisers; reduced boyars' power; increased Russia's trade with western Europe and worked to expand borders; conquered Mongol lands to the east and south of Moscow and expanded borders

Golden Horde

a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century

Grand Duchy of Moscow

power in Russia that slowly began to exert itself against the Golden Horde

Boyars

Russian local nobility

Alexander Romanov

quasi-religious mystic who believes the government of the eastern Roman Empire (Constantinople) is dying; in 1453, the Turks take over Constantinople

Czar Peter the Great

has no middle governing body; absolute absolute absolute monarch (anything he says goes); he wants to try to Westernize Russia; he has absolute power: he even kills the heir to the thrown (his son) because he was a threat to his power

Peter the Great's plan to Westernize Russia

1) Subjugate the Church - the Eastern Orthodox Church becomes more of an arm of the government; now the Czar chooses the Cosmopolitan of the Church (like their pope)
2) Make the Boyars act like Western nobles; they must dress like them; when some refuse, he tells them again and then they refuse again and he has their hats nailed to their heads
3) Officers of State - if you're a noble, you have to be in the government or military; this is the title you get when you're promoted
4) Serfdom: he reduces the free Russian peasantry to serfs which you can sell; "serf" means "soul"
-he also imports westerners to live in Russia; he bribes them with land and makes them nobles; has his army trained by them

St. Petersburg

Peter the Great wants to establish a capitol that's closer to Europe; he founds this city on the river Nava which faces the West; has it built by French engineers; requires his nobles to live here; imports Europeans to live there; Russia lacks a middle class (very small merchant class), so he invites anyone who wants to come (mostly Germans) to be doctors and lawyers and craftsmen; gets Germans for their Army and French to build stuff; French becomes the court language

The Great Northern War

Peter the Great wants to expand to the west to get land closer to Europe, so he starts this war against Sweden; King Christian of Denmark (who controlled Sweden and Denmark) is killed in it; when Russia won, it was able to establish St. Petersburg

Frederick William I

Prussian to the core/soldier king; begins with an army of 39,000 and grows it to 83,000; requires every man between the ages of 18-36 to serve in the army; most Prussian men are in the army and professionally trained, they have huge reserves; he makes Prussia a military state; nobility is not called to serve, but they must be officers; middle class artisans are not soldiers

General Directory for Finance, War, and Domain

each branch has a director that reports to the main director, who reports to the king; pretty much runs every government function except for justice, education, and religion

Frederick II "The Great"

biggest military leader of the century; soldier king: he leads his troops into battle; his dad thought he was too much of pansy for playing the flute, but he was a good composer; he was very well rounded; he likes to beat up on Maria Theresa of Austria

Charles VI

Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor of the Austrian Crown Lands (Hungary and Bohemia), Archduke of Austria, and King of Hungary; his only heir was his daughter Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa

there has never been a Holy Roman Empress, so Charles VI needs to find a way to make her it; makes every power in Europe sign the Pragmatic Sanction; after the War of the Austrian Succession, she gets recognition; she is in love with her husband which was uncommon; she takes care of her own children (very uncommon); she makes Vienna the capitol of the Austrian Empire, and it becomes a very artistic city; allows the Diet of Hungary (which ran Hungary) to stay but takes most of its power away; she commands the army; she has the best secret police force in Europe at the time;

Pragmatic Sanction

Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne; makes every power in Europe acknowledge her as his true heir (she would get all of his titles, but HRE would go to her husband), but none of them intend to honor it when he dies; in 1740, when Charles VI dies, the War of the Austrian Succession breaks out

War of the Austrian Succession

France, Spain, Bavaria, & Prussia vs Austria and England; Frederick the Great invades Austrian Silesia because it's left undefended; Maria Theresa goes to the Hungarian nobles and tells them to stay loyal, they're impressed so they do; England, France, and Spain fight mostly at sea; it is fought in India, the Americas, and Europe; this convinces England to rid the Americas of France

Treaty of Aix La Chapelle

little is gained (Prussia does get Silesia); Maria Theresa gets permanent recognition promised in the Pragmatic Sanction

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