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Test #2

The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are:

Local

The Statute of Winchester formalized the ____ system of protection.

Constable-Watch

According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ____ by ____ of the community.

Prevent Crime; Preventative control

Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve—the ____ in the villages, towns, and cities; and the ____ in the rural areas, unincorporated areas, and counties.

Constable-Watch system; sheriff

After the Civil War, municipal police officers began to take on the characteristics of today's police. Three of these characteristics are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

They began to form posses

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police officers?

they were slaves

One similarity between the slave patrols and the constable-watch system was that:

people could hire others to perform their duties for them.

August Vollmer advocated three principles to professionalize American policing. Which of the following does NOT belong?

He believed that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing.

At various times in American history, local police have acted in several different roles. Three of the roles listed in your textbook are below. Which one does NOT belong?

Firefighters

By the 1970s, research began to show three of the following findings. Which one does NOT belong?

Neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, and high citizen interest.

Three emphasis areas of community policing are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

Fighting crime

State-level law enforcement officers include three of the following groups. Which one does NOT belong?

Sheriffs

One general grouping in your textbook lists four categories of local duties. Three are listed below. Which is NOT one of the duties discussed in your text?

Public education

In which of the following years was the first woman elected to the position of sheriff in the United States?

1992

Which of the following is usually NOT a county law enforcement function?

protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings

Which of the 50 United States does not have a state policing agency?

Hawaii

There are three major differences between federal law enforcement and local and state police agencies. They are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.

Where is the current headquarters of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center located?

Glenn County, Georgia

According to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which of the following agencies or organizations has "primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism"?

federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies

With which of the following agencies are permanent legal attaches or "legats" associated?

the FBI

What is currently the top priority of the FBI?

being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency

_____ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police, anywhere within the state.

state police model

_____ is a technological and management system that aims to make the police better organized and more effective crime fighters.

Compstat

Approximately how many local, state, and federal public law enforcement agencies operate in the United States?

15,700

According to Guest speaker, Warren Spencer, the police do their job based on _____?

The Authority

In 2007, how many police officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty?

48

Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?

patrol

Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ____ patrol.

preventive

In ____ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.

directed

Criminal investigation has been defined as a lawful search of people and things to achieve three of the following goals. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of criminal investigation?

Conduct preventive patrol to ferret out crime

Your textbook gives three reasons why, despite low crime-solving rates by detectives, many police departments continue to employ them. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

Detectives have wider jurisdiction than patrol officers do, and can arrest and book some suspects that other police officers cannot.

With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ____ found at the scene of a crime or on a victim.

all of the above

Your textbook names three distinct functions of DNA profiling. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these distinct functions?

Collecting samples from all people at birth, so that a complete DNA database can be compiled.

Your textbook names three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to report these crimes to authorities. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons listed in your textbook?

The fear of being implicated in the crime

Each year, nearly twice as many people are ____ as are ____.

killed in automobile accidents; murdered

The professional model of policing, which police followed in the decades before community policing, rested on three foundations. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these three foundations?

quick response time

One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with:

minor annoyances—rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars—that irritate citizens

With community policing:

citizens share responsibility for their community's safety

Following are three parts of the acronym SARA, which some community policing advocates recommend as a four-step problem-solving process. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of SARA?

Arrival—determining the situation's timeliness

The crime triangle is a view of crime and disorder as an interaction among three variables, which are:

victim, offender, and location

Which of the following is currently the most complete DNA database?

CODIS

Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures?

street-level enforcement

In which of the following ways can community policing contribute to drug enforcement?

all of the above are ways

Which of the following is NOT true about civil asset forfeiture as a tool in drug enforcement?

the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of civil asset forfeiture laws?

the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime

Which of the following is NOT true about the War on Drugs, at least according to its critics?

abuse or misuse of illegal drugs has contributed to more deaths annually than either alcohol or tobacco

In 2007, approximately ____________ local police departments had one or more officers assigned full-time to a multiagency drug enforcement task force, about the same percentage as in 2003

one in four

In recent years, the mission of D.A.R.E. has expanded to include:

all of the above

Which of the following is the FBI's definition of terrorism?

the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective

In 2010, 59% of the public had "a great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in the police, however, among blacks, only________ had "a great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in the police.

35%

Following are the three I's of police selection. Which one of these does NOT belong?

Intuition

Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences listed in your textbook?

Sensational publicity

Three successful police recruiting practices are listed below. Which of the following does NOT belong?

Waiting for ideal job applicants to gravitate toward one's department

A merit system of police employment is established when an independent civil service commission, in cooperation with the city personnel section and the police department, sets standards for three of the following issues. Which of the following is NOT set by a merit system?

Recruitment criteria

Your textbook names some of the characteristics of a police chief's job. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT listed in your textbook?

Police chiefs must be long-term (preferably lifetime) local residents in order to fully understand the needs of the community.

The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of:

abuses of that discretion.

Police officers cannot make an arrest for every violation of law—that is, they cannot provide:

full enforcement

The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as:

selective enforcement

In cases involving lesser felonies, misdemeanors, and petty offenses, police officers are more likely to:

informally handle the crime

For a long time, police looked at domestic violence calls as ____ when, in fact, they should have been treated as ____.

peacekeeping activities; criminal matters

Approximately ____ women are victims of domestic violence each year.

1 million

Which of the following has/have always made the police the major respondents to domestic violence calls?

The availability of 24-hour service

Police have responded to domestic violence in three distinct ways, which are listed in your textbook. Which of the following is NOT one of these three ways?

Arrest both the perpetrator and the victim

Racial profiling often occurs during ____, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored.

pretext stops

Your textbook lists several methods that have been prescribed to stop racial profiling. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the methods listed in your textbook?

Arresting all perpetrators regardless of race

Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employee?

Job stress

Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?

Excessive force

Approximately what percent of the public rates the police "excellent" or "very good" at responding quickly to calls for help and assistance, preventing crime, solving crime, being helpful and friendly, treating people fairly, and not using excessive force?

between 60 and 70

In 2007, what was the average beginning salary for entry-level police officers in departments with collective bargaining?

$39,263

As of 2007, approximately what percent of the sworn officers in the nation's police departments are white males?

88

What is the average level of education in policing as of 2007?

a 2-year college degree

Which of the following is an advantage of hiring college-educated police officers?

all of the above

Which of the following is a way to control the amount of discretion exercised by police officers?

all of the above

Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court decisions severely restricted the police use of deadly force?

Tennessee v. Garner

A court of ____ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.

original

When the Supreme Court hears a case, it decides upon one of four different courses of action. Three are
listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the courses of action listed in your textbook?

Revert their powers as a court of last resort to the court of original jurisdiction

Which of the following is the attempt to "correct" the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?

Rehabilitation

Which of the following is NOT one of the three key actors in the court process, according to your textbook?

The defendant

The ____ is a community's chief law enforcement official and is responsible primarily for the protection of society.

prosecutor

The ____ mandate(s) that a prosecutor provide defense counsel with any exculpatory evidence in the prosecutor's possession.

rules of discovery

The role of defense lawyers is to:

provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession

Nationally known "celebrity" criminal lawyers take clients only if their cases meet one of three conditions, which are listed in your text. Which of the following is NOT one of these three conditions?

Cases that involve the oppressed or downtrodden

Public defenders commonly spend ____ with their clients.

five to ten minutes

After suspects officially become defendants, they are brought before a lower-court judge for:

an initial appearance

Which of the following is usually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court that is supposed to ensure that the suspect or defendant will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process?

Bail

Holding suspects or defendants in jail without giving them an opportunity to post bail, because of the threat they pose to society, is called:

preventive detention

When defendants plead nolo contendere, they:

do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment

Your textbook names three basic types of plea bargaining, which are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these basic types of plea bargaining?

A defendant may revoke a confession and refuse to face trial.

In 2000, what was the average felony case conviction rate for prosecutors' offices in the United States?

90

Which of the following provides the bulk of the funding for indigent defense systems?

county governments

How do conviction rates for indigent defendants in federal and state courts compare with defendants with privately retained counsel?

convictions rates for both types of defendants are about the same

Incarceration rates are ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys than for those with privately retained counsel in state and federal courts, and the length of jail or prison sentence is ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys.

higher; shorter

Approximately what percent of state prison inmates had attorneys appointed by the court?

70

Which of the following has been referred to as "the conceptual heart of judicial administration in the new millennium"?

caseflow management

As of 2011, pay for jurors

vary from state to state

What standard of proof is necessary to find a defendant guilty as charged?

beyond a reasonable doubt

What is the result if, after serious deliberation, even one juror cannot agree with the others on a verdict?

a hung jury

Which of the following is a possible outcome in state court criminal trials that end in hung juries?

all of the above

The alternative to the grand jury, in states that do not choose to utilize them, is the filing of a(n):

information

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