According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ____ by ____ of the community.
Prevent Crime; Preventative control
Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve—the ____ in the villages, towns, and cities; and the ____ in the rural areas, unincorporated areas, and counties.
Constable-Watch system; sheriff
After the Civil War, municipal police officers began to take on the characteristics of today's police. Three of these characteristics are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
They began to form posses
One similarity between the slave patrols and the constable-watch system was that:
people could hire others to perform their duties for them.
August Vollmer advocated three principles to professionalize American policing. Which of the following does NOT belong?
He believed that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing.
At various times in American history, local police have acted in several different roles. Three of the roles listed in your textbook are below. Which one does NOT belong?
By the 1970s, research began to show three of the following findings. Which one does NOT belong?
Neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, and high citizen interest.
Three emphasis areas of community policing are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
State-level law enforcement officers include three of the following groups. Which one does NOT belong?
One general grouping in your textbook lists four categories of local duties. Three are listed below. Which is NOT one of the duties discussed in your text?
In which of the following years was the first woman elected to the position of sheriff in the United States?
Which of the following is usually NOT a county law enforcement function?
protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings
There are three major differences between federal law enforcement and local and state police agencies. They are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.
Where is the current headquarters of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center located?
Glenn County, Georgia
According to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which of the following agencies or organizations has "primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism"?
federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies
_____ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police, anywhere within the state.
state police model
_____ is a technological and management system that aims to make the police better organized and more effective crime fighters.
Approximately how many local, state, and federal public law enforcement agencies operate in the United States?
Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?
Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ____ patrol.
In ____ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.
Criminal investigation has been defined as a lawful search of people and things to achieve three of the following goals. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of criminal investigation?
Conduct preventive patrol to ferret out crime
Your textbook gives three reasons why, despite low crime-solving rates by detectives, many police departments continue to employ them. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
Detectives have wider jurisdiction than patrol officers do, and can arrest and book some suspects that other police officers cannot.
With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ____ found at the scene of a crime or on a victim.
all of the above
Your textbook names three distinct functions of DNA profiling. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these distinct functions?
Collecting samples from all people at birth, so that a complete DNA database can be compiled.
Your textbook names three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to report these crimes to authorities. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons listed in your textbook?
The fear of being implicated in the crime
Each year, nearly twice as many people are ____ as are ____.
killed in automobile accidents; murdered
The professional model of policing, which police followed in the decades before community policing, rested on three foundations. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these three foundations?
quick response time
One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with:
minor annoyances—rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars—that irritate citizens
Following are three parts of the acronym SARA, which some community policing advocates recommend as a four-step problem-solving process. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of SARA?
Arrival—determining the situation's timeliness
The crime triangle is a view of crime and disorder as an interaction among three variables, which are:
victim, offender, and location
Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures?
In which of the following ways can community policing contribute to drug enforcement?
all of the above are ways
Which of the following is NOT true about civil asset forfeiture as a tool in drug enforcement?
the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of civil asset forfeiture laws?
the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime
Which of the following is NOT true about the War on Drugs, at least according to its critics?
abuse or misuse of illegal drugs has contributed to more deaths annually than either alcohol or tobacco
In 2007, approximately ____________ local police departments had one or more officers assigned full-time to a multiagency drug enforcement task force, about the same percentage as in 2003
one in four
Which of the following is the FBI's definition of terrorism?
the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective
In 2010, 59% of the public had "a great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in the police, however, among blacks, only________ had "a great deal" or "quite a lot" of confidence in the police.
Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences listed in your textbook?
Three successful police recruiting practices are listed below. Which of the following does NOT belong?
Waiting for ideal job applicants to gravitate toward one's department
A merit system of police employment is established when an independent civil service commission, in cooperation with the city personnel section and the police department, sets standards for three of the following issues. Which of the following is NOT set by a merit system?
Your textbook names some of the characteristics of a police chief's job. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT listed in your textbook?
Police chiefs must be long-term (preferably lifetime) local residents in order to fully understand the needs of the community.
The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of:
abuses of that discretion.
Police officers cannot make an arrest for every violation of law—that is, they cannot provide:
The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as:
In cases involving lesser felonies, misdemeanors, and petty offenses, police officers are more likely to:
informally handle the crime
For a long time, police looked at domestic violence calls as ____ when, in fact, they should have been treated as ____.
peacekeeping activities; criminal matters
Which of the following has/have always made the police the major respondents to domestic violence calls?
The availability of 24-hour service
Police have responded to domestic violence in three distinct ways, which are listed in your textbook. Which of the following is NOT one of these three ways?
Arrest both the perpetrator and the victim
Racial profiling often occurs during ____, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored.
Your textbook lists several methods that have been prescribed to stop racial profiling. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the methods listed in your textbook?
Arresting all perpetrators regardless of race
Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employee?
Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?
Approximately what percent of the public rates the police "excellent" or "very good" at responding quickly to calls for help and assistance, preventing crime, solving crime, being helpful and friendly, treating people fairly, and not using excessive force?
between 60 and 70
In 2007, what was the average beginning salary for entry-level police officers in departments with collective bargaining?
As of 2007, approximately what percent of the sworn officers in the nation's police departments are white males?
Which of the following is a way to control the amount of discretion exercised by police officers?
all of the above
Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court decisions severely restricted the police use of deadly force?
Tennessee v. Garner
A court of ____ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
When the Supreme Court hears a case, it decides upon one of four different courses of action. Three are
listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the courses of action listed in your textbook?
Revert their powers as a court of last resort to the court of original jurisdiction
Which of the following is the attempt to "correct" the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three key actors in the court process, according to your textbook?
The ____ is a community's chief law enforcement official and is responsible primarily for the protection of society.
The ____ mandate(s) that a prosecutor provide defense counsel with any exculpatory evidence in the prosecutor's possession.
rules of discovery
The role of defense lawyers is to:
provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession
Nationally known "celebrity" criminal lawyers take clients only if their cases meet one of three conditions, which are listed in your text. Which of the following is NOT one of these three conditions?
Cases that involve the oppressed or downtrodden
After suspects officially become defendants, they are brought before a lower-court judge for:
an initial appearance
Which of the following is usually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court that is supposed to ensure that the suspect or defendant will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process?
Holding suspects or defendants in jail without giving them an opportunity to post bail, because of the threat they pose to society, is called:
When defendants plead nolo contendere, they:
do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment
Your textbook names three basic types of plea bargaining, which are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these basic types of plea bargaining?
A defendant may revoke a confession and refuse to face trial.
In 2000, what was the average felony case conviction rate for prosecutors' offices in the United States?
Which of the following provides the bulk of the funding for indigent defense systems?
How do conviction rates for indigent defendants in federal and state courts compare with defendants with privately retained counsel?
convictions rates for both types of defendants are about the same
Incarceration rates are ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys than for those with privately retained counsel in state and federal courts, and the length of jail or prison sentence is ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys.
Which of the following has been referred to as "the conceptual heart of judicial administration in the new millennium"?
What standard of proof is necessary to find a defendant guilty as charged?
beyond a reasonable doubt
What is the result if, after serious deliberation, even one juror cannot agree with the others on a verdict?
a hung jury
Which of the following is a possible outcome in state court criminal trials that end in hung juries?
all of the above