Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
founded the first Frankish dynasty; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
The family line that had a Frankish ruling dynasty from 450 to 751. They ruled over the Frankish Empire much of which is now present day Germany. They were founded by Merovech and brought to prominence by Clovis, Clovis' successors, divided the kingdom amongst themselves
mayor of the palace
someone who oversaw what the king did. He took care of the day to day affairs of the Merovingians, Frankish official who held power in government.
replaced Merovingians as rulers of Frankish kingdom in 600s AD, got power through marriage, military strength and help of the church
Pepin the Short
Charles Martel's son; was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them; in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks; Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
central part of Italy where Pope Stephen II became the secular ruler when confirmed by the Franks in 755
King of the Franks 768-814. Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
800, Christmas Day
Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
Anglo-Saxon monk of great ability; a key teacher in Charlemagne's court
Period of intellectual, cultural, and economic revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of both Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Louis the Pious
third son of Charlemagne and king of France and Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (778-840), his sons divided empire into 3 bringing end to Carolingian empire
Treaty of Verdun, 843
After Louis died sons split empire into three parts for three different kingdoms, mirrors future language divisions of Europe. eastern kingdom- louie the german; western kingdom- charles the bald; middle kingdom- lothar;
Vikings, Magyars and Muslims
external threats; attacked the Franks; looted towns
land granted to vassals by lords
the loyalty that vassals gave to their lords
A ceremony in which a person formally receives the authority and symbols of an office
a member of the lowest feudal class, bound to the land and whoever owned the land
three field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
the practice in which a lord's greatest vassals subdivide their fiefs and had vassals of their own, and those vassals, in turn, subdivided their fiefs and so on down to simple knights whose fiefs are too small to subdivide.