Coined in the 1840s by the Jacksonian Democrats, was the belief that the United States was "destined" to spread from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Used to promote the annexation of most of the Western United States (Oregon Territory, Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cessation). Always regarded as a general notion rather than a specific policy.
agents who arranged for the settlement of land in Texas during the 1800s, they had cheap land as long as they obeyed mexican law and followed catholic religion
A governor of Texas, who negotiated with the Mexicans over the land of Texas, and in return would populate the area with 300 Catholic families, and they would become Mexicans. However, he went to Mexico in 1833 to negotiate differences with the Mexican government, and he was imprisoned by Santa Anna for 8 months.
antonio lopez de santa anna
Mexican President, Dictator, and General. led the mexicans in the Alamo. He was captured by the Texans in the Battle of San Jacinto. Sam Houston made him sign the Treaty of Velasco in exchange for his life. (Alamo & San Jacinto) ruled Mexico in 1833-55; misused state funds, halted reforms, and created chaos
This was an 18th-century Spanish colonial mission located in San Antonio, Texas. It was the site of one of the most dramatic battles of the Texas Revolution, which involved Texans fighting for independence from Mexico. All 187 Texan defenders, including Bowie and Crockett, were killed by Mexican General Santa Anna's army; but estimates put the number of Mexican Army casualties at anywhere from 600 to 2,000. The fall of this mission became a rallying cry for those fighting to secure Texas' independence and the 13-day siege quickly became enshrined in the public's mind as one of America's most heroic moments.
He became Texas's president after Texas delegates met and declared Texas independent of Mexico. he retreated east to pick up recruits and surprised Santa Anna on a prairie near the San Jacinto River. his army tore through the Mexican lines and forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas. However, Mexican govn't never ratified it.
a trail leading west that many people used to get to California
in 1846 a group of 87 overlanders, known as this party after the two brothers who lead them, were trapped by winter snows high up in the sierra nevada. after 41 died of starvation, those alive faced the choice of death or cannibalism, many resorted to cannibalism.
took over for harrison when he died, President favored states rights; critical of American system and economic nationalism; vetoed creation of third national bank; supported cheap land purchasing in west and western expansionist goals; wanted Texas in union
Webster Ashburton treaty
(JT), followed by Aroostook War, 1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
For twenty years, the British and the United States agreed to jointly occupy this region. But in the mid-1840s this region became a political issue in the United States, with many expansionists willing to risk war to get all of the territory, including present-day British Columbia (54 40 or fight!). In 1846, Britain and the United States agreed to extend the 49th Parallel, forming the modern border between Canada and the United States. The settlers quickly applied for territorial status, which Congress granted in 1849. The territory was gradually split up, and in 1859, it—with its present borders—became the 33rd state.
54 40 or fight
In the election of 1844, Polk used this as a campaign slogan, implying that the he would declare war if Britain did not give the United States all the Oregon territory up to its northern boundary.
the eleventh President of the United States. He threatened war with Britain then backed away and split the ownership of the Northwest with Britain. He is even more famous for leading the successful Mexican-American War.
john o sullivan
a new york editor who coined the term manifest destiny.
the first action of the war took place when Mexican troops crossed over this and attacked U.S. troops
The U.S. and Mexico disputed over the southern boundary of Texas. The Y.S. said that the Rio Grande River was the legitimate border, while Mexico argued that the Nueces River was the southern border of Texas. The Nueces River had always been the Texan border, but by demanding the Rio Grand River as the border, Texas received more land from Mexico.
Mexican American War
Causes::::: American Imperialism, and Mexico's unstable gov't deterred them from being able to focus on the problem of the imposing Uncle Sam on their backyard. Effects::::: The Mexican-American War had many long-term effects. The first and most obvious is the vast territory Mexico was forced to give up to the United States, including the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. California also became a state after the war, following the short-lived 'California Republic' which had been declared in Sonoma by American settlers in revolt against Mexico (their flag is now the California state flag). The leading American general of the war, Zachary Taylor, would later be elected the 12th President. However, the the most important event (at least in American history) that resulted was the American Civil War.
a general and hero of the Mexican-American war. He was elected to the presidency in 1848, representing the Whig party and was a good soldier but poor administrator. He was in office during the crisis of California's admittance to the Union but died in office before a compromise could be worked out, and left vice president Filmore to finalize a deal between the hostile north and south. His significance as president was that he was one of the last Whigs and didn't solve the problem of sectionalism in the country which caused the civil war. ordered by polk to lead his troops across the Nueces River, defeated Mexicans at the battle of Buena Vista
This Colonel, under the direction of Polk, led a small army that captured Santa Fe with no opposition. He then proceeded to California where he joined a conflict already in progress that was being staged jointly by American settlers
since Gen. Taylor could not lead troops to northern MX, this general was entrusted to push inland from the coastal city of Vera Cruz in 1847, he was a War of 1812 hero and handicapped by an inadequate number of troops, expiring enlistments, by a more numerous enemy, mountainous terrain, disease, and political backbiting and still succeeded
American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States First Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform of opposition to slavery.
bear flag republic
A small group of Americans had seized the town of Sonoma north of San Francisco and proclaimed the independent Republic of California. They called it this because its new flag bore a bear and a star. Important because small independences led to winning the war with Mexico.
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
February 2 1848. The agreement between President Polk and the new Mexican government for Mexico to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge the Rio Grand as the boundary of Texas. In return, the US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million.
for $15 million the US got New Mexico, Texas and California
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. it became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.
William Walker had tried to unsuccessfully take Baja California from Mexico is 1853. Finally, leading a force mostly of southerners, he took over Nicaragua in 1855. Walker's regime even gained temporary recognition from the United States in 1856. His grandiose scheme to develop a proslavery Central American empire collapsed however a coalition of Central American countries invaded his men and he resultantly was executed.
Clayton Bulwer Treaty
stipulated that neither america or britian would fortify or secure exclusively control over any future isthmian waterway
free soil party(martin van buren)
Ardent antislavery men in the North, distrusting both Cass and Taylor, organized the Free soil party. they came out foursquare for the wilmot proviso and against slavery in the territories. Going beyond other antislavery groups, they broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements.
free soil free labor free men
slogan of the free soil party
antislavery democrats, their defection threatened to destroy the entire democratic party
compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850
fugitive slave act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
uncle tom's cabin
a novel published by harriet beecher stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
harriet beecher stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystallize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
kansas nebraska act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
the purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.
new england emigrant aid company
Antislavery organization in the North that sent out thousands of pioneers to the Kansas-Nebraska territory to thwart the Southerners and abolitionize the West.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas. Pro-Slavery, Supported by Buchanan and Douglas, split the democratic party. Could have allowed Kansas admittance as a state with fewer people than required, but was voted down.
a town in northeastern Kansas on the Kansas River, scene of 1856 raids by john brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
pottawatomie creek massacre
when a band of Brown's followers went to Pottawatomie Creek in May 1856. There they hacked to pieces five surprised men, presumed to be proslaveryites. (Bleeding Kansas)
Congressman Preston Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner severely in the chamber of the United States Senate. The attack symbolized the building animosity between the North and South and caused further polarization as newspapers and public officials on both sides alternately condemned and praised the attack
dred scott v. sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
(1777-1864) United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court; remembered for his ruling that slaves and their descendants have no rights as citizens(dred scott case).
Lincoln Douglas debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
house divided speech
made by Abraham Lincoln before he was elected(1860) stating that the United States will either be all slave or all free because it can't be half and half and still succeed.
During the 2nd Lincoln-Douglas debates for a senate seat in Freeport Illinois. Douglas said that slavery could be prevented by any territory by the passing of laws against slavery.
panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
1860 presidential candidate for Democratic South; platform: federal protection of slaves in the territories
Presidential candidate of the Constitutional Union Party. He drew votes away from the Democrats, helping Lincoln win.
constitutional union party
also known as the "do-nothings" or "Old Gentlemen's" party; 1860 election; it was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings, met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."
election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
ostates of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina who all seceded
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
He was the whig vice-president of the Confederacy until 1865 when it was defeated and destroyed by the Union. Like the other leaders of the Confederacy, he was under indictment for treason.
confederate states of america
the name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the 36 30 line. Lincoln rejected the proposal, causing the gateway to bloodshed to be open.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
last states to secede: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, N.Carolina; Unionist/Whig influence, economic diversification, ties to the North, sectional compromise;
these states(DE, MD, KY, MO) acted like a buffer between the Union and the Confederacy - states that supported slavery, but didnt leave the union
twenty negro law
Confederate conscription law that exempted from the draft one white man on every plantation owning 20 or more slaves. Purpose was to overseers or ownerswho would ensure discipline over the slaves and keep up production but was regarded as discrimination in non-slaveholding families
In 1863 the Confederate Congress passed this Act which authorized army officers to take food from farmers at prescribed rates. It also empowered agents to impress slaves into labor for the army.
1863, enacted by the union, ages 20-45 had to join military, Substitution Clause said if you can't serve than you could pay $300 and find a substitute
Men who enlisted in the Union army to collect the bounties offered by some districts to fill military quotas; these men would enlist and then desert as soon as they got their money
legal tender act
Lincoln signed in 1862, authorized $150 million in greenbacks. - Confederacy never made its paper money legal tender, responded by making more paper money, which accelerated southern inflation.
Among the first national United States currency, authorized by the Legal Tender Act of 1862.
morrill tariff act
a tarriff which was higher than before. This was an example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet.
national bank act
It raised money for the Union in the American Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence. It helped the Union war effort economically.
national bank notes
currency banked by government bonds issued by national banks starting in 1863 and generally disappearing from circulation in the 1930's
Leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress who was devoted to a stringent and punitive Reconstruction effort. Worked towards equality for Southern blacks.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
ex parte merryman
A Supreme Court case that Chief Justice Taney's ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress. Lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-Unionists during the Civil War. This shows how a president can sometimes overstep their power.
ex parte milligan
Supreme Court decided that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional because civilian courts were still operating, and the Constitution of the United States (according to the Court) only provided for suspension of habeas corpus if these courts are actually forced closed. In essence, the court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during wartime.
1st bull run
"Stonewall" Jackson wins it for the Confederates; shocks people (this war will last a while), first major battle of the civil war, won by the confederates in july 1861
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863), right hand man to Lee, accidentally killed at chancellorsville
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union
robert e lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
battle of antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties, led to emancipation proclamation
ulysses s grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War. defeated Lee
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
merrimac and monitor
a historic duel. a historic duel- Confederates took a sunken Merrimack Union ship and covered it in iron. When Stephen R. Mallory heard of this he designed the Monitor (resembling a cheesebox). The Merrimack attacked three wooden Union warships. The Monitor engaged the Confederate vessel. The Era of wooden fighting ships was over.
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle was fought in the west prevented the north from obtaining an easy victory. However, the Confederates strong resistance showed that they would not go quietly and the war was far from over.
Union naval commander who captured New Orleans
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
A ship built by the British. Not originally built to be a war ship but in 1862 the confederates gave it a crew and weapons. It captured over sixty union vessels before it accepted a challenge from a union cruiser in 1864 off the coast of France.
Two confederate warships being constructed in British shipyards, they were eventually seized by the British for British use to remain neutral in the Civil War.
series of laws passed by federal government designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It only applied to states in rebellion (Confederate states). It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
formal government agency established to provide for the welfare for former slaves
fort pillow massacre
massacre of surrendered African-American troops was conducted or condoned by Confederate Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest. Military historian David J. Eicher concluded, "Fort Pillow marked one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history." Confederate troops led by future KKK leader Nathan Bedford Forrest.
turning point Union victory in Pennsylvania; Lee was going to surprise the Union here and then go on to take Washington D.C.; instead, Lee lost after 3 days of battle ending with Picket's Charge at the middle of the Union line at Cemetary Ridge which lead to the death of 1000s of Confederate soldiers
In __________ Mississippi a strong fort overlooked the river. Grant surrounded the fort and began a siege. On July 4 it surrendered. This gave the North control of the Mississippi River.
Sherman's march to the sea
total war, After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864 with the 1st alabama cavalry regiment.
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
morrill land grant act
A tarriff which was higher than before. This was an example of how easy Congress could pass new laws since the South were not readmitted yet., encouraged states to use the sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural and technical colleges
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
The most infamous prison in the south. There was no shelter. There was a huge population, and there were food shortages, overcrowding, and disease that killed about 100 men a day during the summer months.
new york city draft riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Lee surrenders here, but Grant offers the Confederacy good surrender terms to try to reunify the country.
john wilkes booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
ten percent plan
Lincoln- when 10% of the states population swore an oath of loyalty to the U.S. the state could form a new government, declare end of slavery and send representatives to Congress
proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction
Lincoln's approach to reconstruction. Entailed general amnesty to white southerners unless they were leaders of the confederacy as long as they said an oath of allegiance and accepted abolition. When 10% of state took the oath, the state could begin to redraft its constitution. Black men with an education and served in the Union army received automatic suffrage. LA, AR, and TN were readmitted by this plan before the war was over.
wade davis bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
The return of 11 ex-Confederates to high offices and the passage of the Black Codes by southern legislatures angered the Republicans in Congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective of freed blacks.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
radical republican and a senator of OH wanted to abolish slavery completely, was the chair of the committee on the conduct of the war
civil rights act of 1866
created federal guarantees of civil rights and superseded any state laws that limited them Johnson vetoed the act
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
equal protection of the laws
part of the fourteenth amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people
due process of law
principle in the 5th Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
tenure of office act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
served as the secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. He refused to leave after Johnson fired him, thus starting the impeachment process.
Formal accusation by the lower house of a legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
elizabeth cady stanton
Joined Susan B. Anthony to form the National Woman Suffrage Association. Opposed 15th amendment.
susan b anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
civil rights act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
name given by former confederates to those southerners who supported the shift in power to congress and the army in the south during reconstruction
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
ku klux klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against southern African Americans.
blanche k bruce
An American politician. Bruce represented Mississippi as a U.S. Senator from 1875 to 1881 and was the first black to serve a full term in the Senate.
African American minister who was elected to serve in the Senate; one of the first blacks to serve in the Senate
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
whether sharecropper would buy supplies but could not yet pay for them, this was used in order to cover the debts or interest for the margins. The merchants would take some of the cross in order to cover the debts that the farmer had accrued.
group of corrupt and manipulating politicians which arose during the Grant administration, causes Grant to lose credibility with Reformers
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
seward's ice box
nickname for secretary of state seward's purchase of alaska, gave hope to expansionists
an American financier that was partnered with James Fisk in tampering with the railroad stocks for personal profit He, like other railroad kings, controlled the lives of the people more than the president did and pushed the way to cooperation among the kings where they developed techniques such as pooling.
Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S. gold market nearly succeeded in 1869
a joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.
political boss of New York who used corruption to cheat the city out of over 100 million; he was later arrested and died in jail
During the Gilded Age it was the notorious Tammany Hall political machine led by "Boss" William Marcy Tweed. In two years it defrauded the City of $200,000,000 1868-71.
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
An American newspaper editor and founder of the Republican party. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper 1840-1870. Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms.
panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
with this decision, the supreme court limited the impact of the post civil war ammendments by defining US citizenship narrowly and leaving the states to regulate domestic race relations
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
amnesty act of 1872
United States federal law that removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the American Civil War, except for some 500 military leaders of the Confederacy. The original restrictive Act was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on May 1866.
mississippi plan and redemption
said anyone can vote if they pay the poll tax, pass a literacy competency test and complete residency requirements
freedom from slavery
American Politician, Lawyer, military leader, and the 19th president of the United States. Only president elected by Congressional Commission.
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river