A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Scramble for Africa
When many European countries all rushed into Africa in an attempt to gain lands for themselves.
White Man's Burden
idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
imperialist country installs its own government; most direct form of control
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
the system by which a company or country is organized at the most basic level
loyalty to a nation and promotion of its interests above all others
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules about the colonization of Africa. They disregarded cultural/ethnic/tribal lines were disregarded.
What were the economic causes of imperialism?
raw materials for industrial revolution, trade, cheap labor, new markets
What new technologies allowed imperialism to take place?
1st machine gun (Maxim gun), new medicine (1st malaria pill), steam engine (boats could get into the interior of Africa)
What were the positive consequences of imperialism?
economic growth, improved education and healthcare,
What were the negative consequences of imperialism?
Native people lost control of their land, destroyed families and culture, slavery, increased local warfare, current political unrest
What were the political causes of imperialism?
nationalism (pride and prestige), national security/border protection, military bases & source of troops
What were the social causes of imperialism?
missionary (spread Christianity), social Darwinism; spread cultural values - racism/cultural superiority; white man's burden
What forces enabled imperialism?
maxim gun, railroad/steamships, cure for malaria, internal divisions, industrial revolution
What is a protectorate?
territory maintains its own government with strong foreign influence
What is a sphere of influence?
exclusive trading rights
racist description of natives - unchristian, needing parental care
Who colonized Egypt?
Why did a European country want to colonize Egypt?
wanted Suez canal for trade; geographic location - cut distance to India
Who colonized the Congo?
Why did a European nation want to colonize the Congo?
wanted natural resources (rubber, ivory), cheap labor
strict system of racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa against black South Africans
led the ANC and spent 27 years in prison until becoming the first elected President of a democratic South Africa.
What European nations colonized Rwanda?
Germany (Germany lost overseas colonies after WWI), then Belgium
What was a negative effect of imperialism in Rwanda?
Belgium created imbalance of power between Hutus and Tutsi; created racial discrimination against Hutus and gave privileges to Tutsi; caused long-term resentment that led to genocide in the 1990s
Why did a European nation want to colonize Sudan?
wanted to control the Nile river for a planned irrigation dam
Who colonized Sudan?
What was a negative effect of imperialism in Sudan?
British controlled North and South as two separate territories, when Sudan gained independence there was tension/division between North and South Sudan which led to Civil War
What were the positive effects of imperialism?
Modern technology, modern medicine, schools, development of infrastructure - roads, ports, railroads
Dominant ethnic group in Rwanda
Minority ethnic group in Rwanda
deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group
When was the Rwandan genocide?
How many people were killed in the Rwandan genocide?
United Nations response to the Rwandan genocide
sent peacekeeping forces, they weren't allowed to stop the killing
Paul Rusesabagina's response to the genocide
he risked his life and his family to help save strangers
Hutu militia group
Hutus derogatory name for Tutsi
Hutu Power Radio
controlled by Interhamwe (used propaganda to start genocide)
What is Sudan's capital?
What is the largest country in Africa?
Major religion in North Sudan
Major religion in South Sudan
Where is Sudan's only sea port located?
Majori ethnic group in North Sudan
Where is majority of Sudan's oil located?
Lost Boys of Sudan
more than 27,000 boys of the Dinka ethnic group who were displaced and/or orphaned during the Second Sudanese Civil War
Why were Lost Boys displaced or orphaned?
In 1987 the government announced a plan to kill all males in Southern Sudan.
What happened to the Lost Girls of Sudan?
Due to a UN policy of placing orphaned girls with foster families in the refugee camp, the Lost Girls were ineligible for resettlement as "unaccompanied minors." Foster placement often amounted to indentured servitude. Moreover, foster parents frequently pushed girls into marriage so the foster family would receive bridewealth—cash and cattle—from the groom.
who flees in search of safety, as in times of war, political oppression, or religious persecution.
Lost Boy of Sudan, resettled in America, started a successful nonprofit to provide health care to people in Southern Sudan
What did Sudan vote on in January 2011?
South Sudan's independence (will start on July 9th, 2011)
Why does South Sudan want to become it's own country?
Like the rest of African, Sudan's borders were drawn up by colonial powers with little regard to cultural realities on the ground. North and South have different geography, culture, religion, ethnic groups, etc. With the government in the north, many southerners were discriminated against. Southerners also angered at attempts to impose Islamic law on the whole country.