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Cellular Respiration, Fermentation, & Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration

process by which cells use the energy stored in food molecules to make ATP in the presence of oxygen

Metabolic Reactions

all the chemical reactions in the body

Anabolic

reactions that build up complex molecules

Catabolic

reactions that break down to simple molecules

Metabolic conditions

conditions in which reactions take place

Aerobic

with oxygen present

Anaerobic

without oxygen present

ATP

cellular/chemical energy

Oxidized

when a molecule loses an electron

Reduced

when a molecule gains an electron

Glycolysis

chemical reactions that break sugar into two Pyruvate molecules

Gateway Reaction

reaction that turns Pyruvate into Acetyl CoA

Krebs Cycle

third step of cellular respiration

Oxidative Phosphorylation

process by which ETC and oxidative phosphorylation are coupled by a proton motive force

Electron Transport Chain

uses the energy in the high energy electrons to pump protons

Chemiosmosis

when ATP synthase uses the proton motive force to phosphorylate ADP, forming ATP

Fermentation

producing ATP without oxygen

Light Dependent Reaction

reactions that convert light energy to chemical energy

Light Independent Reaction

reactions that convert carbon dioxide to sugar

chlorophyll

green pigment located within the chloroplasts

Mesophyll Cells

leaf cells, contain most chloroplasts

Stomata

pore in the leaf through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves

Carbon Fixation

using carbon dioxide to make organic compounds

Photosystem

light gathering complex consisting of several hundred chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid molecules

Reaction Center

several hundred chlorophyll a molecules at the center of a photosystem, where first light driven chemical reactions occur

NADH

carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to make energy

NADPH

carries two high energy electrons and a proton and is used to build macromolecules

Pigments

substances that absorb light

Chlorophyll a

participates directly in light reactions

Chlorophyll b

captures energy and transfers it to chlorophyll a

Carotenoids

yellow and orange pigments that transfer light to chlorophyll a

Rubisco

enzyme that catalyzes the Calvin cycle, most common enzyme in the world

C3

plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 3 carbon compound (PGA)

C4

plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation is a 4 carbon compound (malate)

CAM

plants in which the first organic molecule of carbon fixation are 3 & 4 carbon molecules. This mode of carbon fixation is called CAM after the plant family Crassulaceae, the plant in which the process was first discovered

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