Biology I - Chapter 2B - Organic Chemistry

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For Biology I students at Christian Life School

Characteristics of Carbon that make it unique

*Has 4 electrons in its outer shell
*Can form covalent bonds with 4 other elements
*Can form straight chains, branching chains, or rings of carbons

Four Major Organic Compounds

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Monosaccharides

The basic units of carbohydrates

-saccharide

sugar

Examples of monosaccharides

Glucose
Galactose
Fructose

gluc-

sweet

-ose

sugar

galact-

milk

fruct-

fruit

Disaccharides

Produced by joining together two monosaccharides with the help of enzymes

Examples of disaccharides

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

sucr-

sugar

malt-

malt

lact-

milk

Dehydration synthesis

The process of combining molecules and in that process, a water molecule is given off.

hydra-

water

-synthesis

to put together

Hydrolysis

The breaking down of a large molecule by adding water.

-lysis

a loosening

Polysaccharides

The largest sugar molecules made up of many monosaccharides

poly-

many

Examples of polysaccharides

Starch
Cellulose
Glycogen
Chitin

Starch

Stored up food in plants.

Glycogen

Animal starches; stored up food in animals.

Cellulose

Large molecule found in the cell walls of plants; known as bulk or roughage.

Chitin

A strong, insoluble, flexible polysaccharide that makes up the shells of crustaceans and the rough outer covering of insects.

Lipids

A group of organic substances that are slightly soluble in water but very soluble in organic solvents like alcohol and ether; a very slow energy source.

Soluble

Able to dissolve

Functions of Lipids

Long term energy source
Protect against heat loss
Protect against water loss
Chemical messengers for hormones
Makes up membranes

Fatty acids

Unbranched chains of 14-28 carbon atoms that have a carboxyl group at one end.

-philic

love of

-phobic

fear of

Triglycerides

Formed by combining three fatty acid molecules with a glycerol molecule.

Saturated

When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.

Unsaturated

When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule.

Phospholipid

Made up of two fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule.

Sterols

A lipid category that combines with other substances to form hormones and other compounds.

Most common sterol

Cholesterol

Protein

Organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Amino acids

The basic building blocks of proteins.

How many different amino acids are there?

Over 20

Peptide bond

The type of bond that forms in between amino acids and keeps them together.

Nucelic acids

The hereditary material of life.

Two major nucleic acids

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)

Watson & Crick

Scientists who created the first DNA model and called it a double helix.

3 components of a nucleotide

Sugar
Phosphate
Nitrogenous base

4 DNA bases

Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine

DNA Replication

Producing two DNA strands from an old one. The two new strands are half old and half new.

Steps of DNA Replication

1. DNA unwinds.
2. An enzyme (helicase) breaks the bonds between the bases, unzipping the DNA.
3. Complementary nucleotides are added to both sides of the DNA.
4. Both DNA molecules rezip and rewind.

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