For Biology I students at Christian Life School
Characteristics of Carbon that make it unique
*Has 4 electrons in its outer shell
*Can form covalent bonds with 4 other elements
*Can form straight chains, branching chains, or rings of carbons
Four Major Organic Compounds
Organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
The basic units of carbohydrates
Examples of monosaccharides
Produced by joining together two monosaccharides with the help of enzymes
Examples of disaccharides
The process of combining molecules and in that process, a water molecule is given off.
to put together
The breaking down of a large molecule by adding water.
The largest sugar molecules made up of many monosaccharides
Examples of polysaccharides
Stored up food in plants.
Animal starches; stored up food in animals.
Large molecule found in the cell walls of plants; known as bulk or roughage.
A strong, insoluble, flexible polysaccharide that makes up the shells of crustaceans and the rough outer covering of insects.
A group of organic substances that are slightly soluble in water but very soluble in organic solvents like alcohol and ether; a very slow energy source.
Functions of Lipids
Long term energy source
Protect against heat loss
Protect against water loss
Chemical messengers for hormones
Makes up membranes
Unbranched chains of 14-28 carbon atoms that have a carboxyl group at one end.
Formed by combining three fatty acid molecules with a glycerol molecule.
When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.
When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule.
Made up of two fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule.
A lipid category that combines with other substances to form hormones and other compounds.
Most common sterol
Organic compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
The basic building blocks of proteins.
How many different amino acids are there?
The type of bond that forms in between amino acids and keeps them together.
The hereditary material of life.
Two major nucleic acids
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Watson & Crick
Scientists who created the first DNA model and called it a double helix.
3 components of a nucleotide
4 DNA bases
Producing two DNA strands from an old one. The two new strands are half old and half new.
Steps of DNA Replication
1. DNA unwinds.
2. An enzyme (helicase) breaks the bonds between the bases, unzipping the DNA.
3. Complementary nucleotides are added to both sides of the DNA.
4. Both DNA molecules rezip and rewind.