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Nativism

a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

Know nothing party

The Know Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to U.S. values and controlled by the Pope in Rome. Mainly active from 1854 to 1856, it strove to curb immigration and naturalization, though its efforts met with little success. There were few prominent leaders, and the largely middle-class and entirely Protestant membership fragmented over the issue of slavery. Most ended up joining the Republican Party by the time of the 1860 presidential election.[

Assimilation

the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another

New Immigration

The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.

Bessemer Process

an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities

Railroads

Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century (704)

Chinese exclusion act

(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.

Ellis Island

an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States

The New colosssus

Poem written by Emily Lazarous Message we welcome trash

Angel Island

The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.

Eugenics

the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)

Immigration restriction League

A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.

Gentlemans Agreement

an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Literacy tests

Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration

Tenements

poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived

Benevolent Societies

Organizations that helped immigrants in cases of sickness, unemployment, and death.

Jane Adams

Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.

Americanization

Process of assimilating immigrants into American culture by teaching English, American history, and citizenship

Red Scare

Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.

Sacco and Vanzetti

In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly

quota

a prescribed number

L.U.L.A.C.

league of united latin american citizens

National Origins Act

(CC) 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890. It excluded immigration of Asians, first was from 3%

Refugee

a person forced to leave her or his home or country seeking protection from danger

Asylum

place of refuge or shelter; protection (religious or political)

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