Chapter 3 The Mediterranean and Middle East, 2000-500 B.C.E.

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The Cosmopolitan Middle East, 1700-1100 B.C.E. The Aegean World, 2000-1100 B.C.E. The Assyrian Empire, 911-612 B.C.E. Israel, 2000-500 B.C.E. Phoenicia and the Mediterranean, 1200-500 B.C.E. Transformation, 750-550 B.C.E.

Iron Age

historians' term for the period during which iron was the primary meta for tools and weapons. The adent of iron technology began at different times in different parts of the world

Hittites

a people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the late Bronze Afe. With wealth from the trade in metals and militaru poewer based on chariot forces, the Hittites vied with New kingdom Egypt for control of Syria-Palestine before falling to unidentified attackers ca. 1200 B.C.E.

Hatsheput

Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.) she dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly norrtheast Sudan or Eretria), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her nam and imagee were frequently defaced

Akhenaten

Egyptian pharaoh (1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new stle of naturalistic art, and created a religiious revolution bby imposing worship of the sundisk. The Amarna letters, largely from his reign, preserve official correspndence with subjects and neighbors.

Ramses II

A long lived ruler of New KIngdom Egypt (1290-1224 B.C.E.) He reached an accommodation with the Hittites of Anatolia after a standoff in battle at Kadesh in Syria. He built on grand scale throughout Egypt.

Minoan

prosperous civilization of the Aegean island of Crete in the second millennium B.C.E. The Minoans enganged in far-flung commerce around the Mediterranean and exerted powerful cultural influences on the early Greeks.

Mycenae

Site of a fortified palace complex in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who comanded the Greeks besieging Troy. Contemporary archaeologists call the complex Greek society of the second milllennium B.C.E. "Mycenaean"

shaft graves

a term used for the burial sites of elite members of Mycenaean Geek society in the mid-second millennium B.C.E. At the bottom of deep shafts lined with stone slabes, the bodies were laid out along with gold and bronze jewelry, implements, weapons, and masks.

Linear B

a set of syllabic symbols, derived from the writing system of Minoan Crete, used inthe Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age to write an early form of Greek. It was used primarily for palace records, and the surviving LInear tablets provide substantial information about the economic organization of Mycenaean society and tantalizing clues about political, social, and religious institutions.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

an empire extending rom western Iran to Syria-Palenstine, conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamiabetweenthe tenth and seventh centuries B.C.E. They used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects. They also preserved and continued the cultural and scientific developments of Mesopotamian civilization

mass deportation

the forcible removal and relocation of large numbers of people or entire populations. The mass deportations practiced by the Assyrian and Persian Empires were meant as a terrifying warning of the consquences of rebellion. Tthey also brought skilled and unskilled labor to the imperial center.

Library of Ashubanipal

a large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the seventh-century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. The many tablet unearthed by archaeologists constitute one of the most important sources of present-day knowledge of the long literary tradition of Mesopotamia

Israel

In antiquity, the land between the eastrn shore Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites from the early second millennium B.C.E. The modern state of Israel was founded in 1948

Hebrew Bible

a collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the etant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth centruy B.C.E. and reflects the concerns and views of this group

First Temple

a monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by king solomon in the tenth century B.C.E. to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh. The Temple priesthood conducted sacrifices, recieved a tithe or percentage of agricultural revenues, and beame economically and politically powerful. The First Temple was destroyed byBabylonians in 587 B.C.E., rebuilt on a modest scale in the late sixth century B.C.E. and replaced by King Herod's Second Temple in the late first century B.C.E.( destroyed by the romans)

monotheism

belief in the existence of a single divine entity Some scholars cite the devotion of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten to Aten (sn-disk) and his suppression of traditional gods as the earliest instance. The Israelite worship of Yahweh developed into an exclusive belief in one god and this concept passed into Christianity and Islam

Diaspora

A greek word meaning "dispersal" used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside thier homeland> Jews for example, spread from Israel to western Asian and Mediterranean lands in antiquity and today can be found throughtout the world.

Phoenicians

Semitic-speaking canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and syria in teh first millennium B.C.E. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged in widespread commerce, and foun Carthage and other colonies in the western Mediterranean

Carthage

City located in present day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercail center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.

Neo-Babylonian kingdom

Under the Chaldaeans ( nomadic kinship groups that settled in southern Mesopotamia in the early first millennium B.C.E.) Babylon again became a major political and cultural center in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E. After participating in the destruction of Assyrian power, the monarchs Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzr took over the southern portion of the Assyrian domains. By destroying the First Temple in Jerusalem and deporting part of the the population, they initiated the Diaspora of the Jews

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