Chapter 2 Part II: The CNS

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hypothalamus

The part of the rain responsible for emotional behavior and regulating the nervous system in times of stress

hypothalamus

Regulates eating, regulates the "restorative" functioning of the autonomic nervous system after an emergency has passed

hypothalamus

Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, temperature control, and sleeping are most strongly influenced by this

thalamus

Part of the brain that can be thought of as a major switching station that directs incoming information to the correct brain structure

thalamus

The brain's "relay" station

thalamus

The structure in the center of the forebrain that relays sensory information

breathe

Damage to the medulla can seriously impair one's ability to

hypothalamus

The part of the brain that is very involved in motivation, hunger, thirst, and emotional behavior such as experiencing rage, terror, or pleasure

amygdala

The part of the brain that, along with the hippocampus, regulates aggression and other emotions and establishes emotional memories

limbic system

System important to motivation

three

The brain can be divided into how many layers that evolved in different stages of evolution?

hindbrain

At the point where the spinal cord enters the skull, it becomes the

hindbrain

Earliest part of the brain that evolved

hindbrain

Part of the brain containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum

medulla

Part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure

medulla

The point at which the nerves from the left side of the body cross over into the right side of the brain and vice versa

pons

The structure in the hindbrain that transmits messages to the upper areas of the brain and produces chemicals that help maintain our wake-sleep cycle

cerebellum

Responsible for balance and coordination

cerebellum

"little brain"

cerebellum

Part of hindbrain involved in emotional control, attention, memory, and coordinating sensory information

midbrain

The part of the brain where pain is registered and which is important in hearing and sight

midbrain

Largely involved with sight, perception of pain, and hearing

thalamus

The structure directly over the brain stem that relays and translates sensory information

thalamus

The part of the brain which acts as a switchboard or relay station, sending incoming messages to the appropriate areas of the brain

hypothalamus

The part of the brain that acts like a "thermostat", regulating hunger, thirst, sexual drive, and body temperature

hypothalamus

The part of the brain responsible for emotional behavior such as experiencing rage, terror, or pleasure

hypothalamus

Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the

corpus callosum

The thick bundle of nerves connecting the two cerebral hemispheres which coordinates their activities

Broca

Set forth the notion that human language is primarily controlled by the left hemisphere

talking

Broca's area is important for this

listening

Wernike's area is important for this

aphasias

Language difficulties that often result from strokes or other brain injuries

90

Approximately __% of humans are right-handed

left

__________-handedness appears to be the result of a combination of genetic, environmental, and prenatal influences

neural plasticity

The ability of the brain to change in response to experience

three

The brain can be divided into _____ layers that evolved in different stages of evolution

cerebral cortex

The most recent part of the nervous system to evolve

primary motor cortex

Section of the frontal love responsible for voluntary movement

frontal

Phineas Gage was a foreman on a railroad crew who suffered brain damage in a blasting accident. After the accident he lost interest in his job and had difficulty maintaining goal-directed behaviors. He seemed apathetic and capable of only shallow emotions. The damaged part of this brain was probably the _________ lobe.

hippocampus

George was in an automobile accident several years ago in which he suffered severe head injuries. Since the mishap, he has been unable to form new memories. He can remember everything he did before the accident but he cannot remember what he just said five minutes ago. The part of George's brain that was injured was probably the ___________.

amygdala and hippocampus

The limbic system structures that seem especially important to emotions related to self-preservation and when stimulated cause fear or panic reactions or attack behaviors

temporal

The part of the brain that helps regulate hearing, balance & equilibrium, certain emotions and motivation, and recognizing faces is the _________ lobe.

central

The division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord is the __________ nervous system.

peripheral

The division of the nervous system that connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body is the ___________ nervous system.

brain and spinal cord

The central nervous system consists of the __________ and the ___________.

microelectrode recording technique

A technique in which a tiny quartz or glass pipette that is filled with conducting fluid and placed on the surface of a neuron so that scientists can study changes in the electrical conditions of that particular neuron is called a ________ _______ __________.

Structural imaging

______________ ___________ techniques are used to map structures in the living brain.

magnetic resonance imaging

What provides the best map of physical structures in the brains of living human beings?

positron emission tomography (PET) scanning

A brain imaging technique that uses radioactive energy to map brain activity

slightly more

Males are ______ _______ likely than females to be left-handed.

left

The hemisphere that specializes in analyzing sequences and details

expressive

Amy has suffered damage to Broca's area in her brain. She is most likely to exhibit ________ aphasia.

receptive

Amy has suffered damage to Wernike's area in her brain. She is most likely to exhibit ________ aphasia.

split brain

Patients who have had their corpus callosum cut

left

The hemisphere most involved in preserving one's sense of identity of "self"

left

The hemisphere usually dominant in language tasks

hindbrain

The point where the spinal cord enters the brain

hindbrain

Believed to be the earliest part of the brain that evolved

medulla

Part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure

pons

A college student is having difficulty staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night, her difficulties most likely due to problems in her ______.

pons

The structure in the hindbrain that transmits messages to the upper areas of the brain and produces chemicals that help maintain our wake-sleep cycle

cerebellum

A young woman recovering from a blow to her head finds she has great difficulty maintaining her balance and coordinating her movements. Injury to which part of the brain?

cerebellum

Susan has a degenerative disease which causes her to lose her balance easily and to move in a jerky and uncoordinated way. She cannot drink from a glass without spilling it or touch her toes without falling over. The disease is affecting her ___________.

midbrain

Involved in perception of pain, sight, and hearing... NOT HUNGER AND THIRST

thalamus

The structure directly over the brain stem that relays and translates sensory information

70

The cerebral cortex contains about ___% of the neurons in the central nervous system.

frontal

The love of the brain most involved in motivation, persistence, emotional responses, character, and moral decision making

parietal

The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the __________ lobe.

limbic system

Responsible for controlling learning and emotional behavior

hypothalamus

Our ability to read the facial expressions of emotion in other people is registered where?

90

The brain and spinal cord contain about __% of the body's neurons

10

The peripheral nervous system contains about __& of the body's neurons

macroelectrode

Techniques used to obtain an overall picture of activity in particular regions of the brain

microelectrode

Techniques used to study single neurons

microelectrode

Techniques used to study the functions of single neurons

Functional imagining

Techniques used to observe neural activity as it reacts to sensory stimuli

fMRI

A brain imaging technique that measures the movement of blood in the brain

functional imaging

Examples of this technique: PET and MEG

EEG

Brain scanning technique that offers the most hope for understanding disorders such as amnesia and dyslexia

cry

A patient suffering from a seizure disorder has his left hemisphere anesthetized, what will he do?

laugh

A patient suffering from a seizure disorder has his right hemisphere anesthetized, what will he do?

right

Hemisphere that specializes holistic processing

left

More active hemisphere if a person is cheerful, sociable, and self-confident

right

More active hemisphere if a person is more easily stressed, frightened, and depressed

hindbrain

Part of brain containing medulla, pons, and cerebellum

structural imaging

technique that measures various brain waves

MEG

First window into the electrical activity of a living brain

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