Introduction to Pharmacology (exam review 3) Asperheim-Favaro

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Chapter 18- 19-20-21

A diet that would be recommended for a patient undergoing chemotherapy would include?

High protein, low saturated fat foods

A malignancy arising from epithelial cells is known as

Carcinoma

A patient asks the doctor to prescribe epoetin (Procrit) for her tiredness related to having cancer. She has seen an advertisement on television promising her that this will increase her energy level. What must be explained to the patient about this medication?

It is for the treatment of chronic anemia and will not result in increasing energy related to other causes

Acute lymphocytic leukemia of childhood has been noted to go into remission as a result of treatment with?

Corticosteroid agents

An autoimmune condition in which erythrocytes are destroyed by antibodies causing the patient to experience fatigue chills fever dyspnea and jaundice is:

autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Antimetabolite agents act primarily by which of the following actions..

mimicking purine folic acid; and pyrimidine in the cell

Antineoplastic drugs are most likely to be toxic to which of the following

most rapidly dividing healthy tissues

Autoimmune disease occur only in the blood and lymphatic systems.

false

Alkylating agents are a type of genotoxic drug because of which of the following actions

damage to the DNA structure leading to cell death

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has what effect on the body?

stimulation of hydro-cortisone secretion

Which of the following are types of antineoplastic drugs?

antimetabolite agents

Because of its inhibition of the factors that stimulate T-lymphocyte growth, cyclosporine is used to:

Used to prevent rejection of organ and bone narrow transplant

Because of the drugs' action to suppress the body's inflammatory response, patients on long-term adrenocorticoid agents are at risk for the unrecognized advance of?

Tuberculosis and perforated ulcer

Because of their selective estrogen-agonist properties, selective estrogen receptor modulated aromatase inhibitors (SERMs) can be used to:

prevent or treat diseases caused by estrogen deficiency

Before having a surgical correction for prostatic hypertrophy, a patient might take a course of what drugs?

Uroxatral -avodart-proscar

Bleomycin (Blenoxane) differs from most antineoplastic agents in what ways?

the drug has a low incidence of bone marrow toxicity

During treatment with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), the patient should be monitored for what; because of the possibility of serious side effects?

electrocardiogram changes

For what would a patient with AIDS be prescribed megestrol (Megace)?

Who have poor appetite

Goserelin acetate (Zoladex) are used to treat what?

prostate cancer, breast cancer and endometriosis

Hib vaccine provides immunity against which pathogen?

Haemophilus influenza; infections in infants and young children

Hypothyroidism tends to occur in geographic regions that are deficient in?

iodine

Immunity provided by the mumps-measles-rubella (MMR) vaccine is less than optimal if administered before what age?

12 months of age

In addition to its role as an antineoplastic drug, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) is also used to treat?

Autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and nephrotic syndrome, and to prevent organ transplant rejection.

In addition to its use as an antineoplastic medication, lomustine (CCNU) is also used in the treatment of what other condition?

Mycosis fungoides and psoriasis

In addition to treatment of prostate cancer, leuprolide (Lupron) is also used to treat what?

Central precocious puberty

Interferon is an example of what category of antineoplastic agents?

alkalating agents

Live influenza virus vaccine (FluMist) differs from the vaccines for polio and hepatitis in which of the following ways?

Is administered into each nostril by sprayer

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often benefit from treatment with forms of interferon beta because of what rationale?

Because interferons are proteins that posses complex antiviral, antineoplastic, and immunomodulating activities.

Oxybutynin (Ditropan) is given for the treatment of what?

Bladder spam.It may be used for day and night wetting

Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is prescribed for urinary tract infections to produce?

analgesic effect on the urinary tract mucosa

Regulating hormones that affect all the other endocrine glands in the body are secreted in which locations?

Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

Teriparatide (Forteo), a medication used to treat osteoporosis, is derived from which source?

Fragment of human parathyroid hormone (recombinant DNA origen)

The goal of insulin pump therapy is to do?

Deliver both basal doses and boluses to stimulate normal beta cell function

The hormone that induces favorable conditions for the growth and development of the fetus is

Progesterone

The patient receiving chemotherapy should be instructed in what regimens for oral hygiene?

FREQUENT, GENTLE CLEANSING OF THE MOUTH

The poliovirus vaccine (IPOL) can be administered by which route

IM or subcutaneously.

To manage gastrointestinal symptoms during treatment with nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), what would be recommended for the patient to take with each dose of the medication?

food and milk

Under what conditions might immunizations be withheld for an interval?

When receiving corticosteroids or antineoplastic agents, or when family members are immnologically compromised.

Water loss that is difficult to detect and measure is called:

TERMED INSENSIBLE PERSPIRATION or insensible loss

What antibody preparation is used to desensitize Rh-negative mothers after delivery of an Rh-positive infant?

Rho (D) IMMUNE HUMAN GLOBULIN (RhoGAM)

What antineoplastic drugs might be administered orally, intramuscularly, intravenously, or as an intracavitary infusion?

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

What are types of antineoplastic drugs?

Drug used to treat cancer

What are used to suppress the thyroid gland before surgery?

Tyroid preparation 60 mg.- levothynoxine - syntroid

What disorders may occur if the thyroid fails to function properly during the formative years of a child's development?

cretinism

What drug for treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is available in transdermal patches?

Granisetron (kytril)

What drugs are given for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)?

Avodart- uroxatral- finasteride (proscar) Alfuzosin Hcl, Dutasteride, Silodosin, Tamsulosin

What foods could be recommended to a patient who is taking thiazide diuretics?

Potassium supplements potatoes, orange, bananas.

What is a loop diuretic agent?

Furosemide (Lasix) act throughout the collecting tubules of the nephron, particularly on the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, to prevent the reabsorption of - and hence cause the excretion of- sodium and chloride.

What is necessary for oral hypoglycemic agents to be effective in managing diabetes?

For maintain the blood glucose level.

What is the drug used to immunize young adults against the causative agent of cervical cancer?

Human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil)

What laboratory tests should be done regularly with patients on diuretic therapy?

Fluid /electrolyte

What may accompany the use of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause?

estrogen replacement therapy

What may help the chemotherapy patient cope with the nausea and vomiting that often accompany intravenous infusion treatment?

sedation and antiemetic medication before treatment

What might be used topically for the treatment of actinic keratoses?

Fluorouracil (5-FU)

What urinary agents commonly causes the urine to turn red, which should be explained to the patient before starting treatment with the drug?

Phenazopyrine Hcl (Pyridium)

With proper therapy the prognosis for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis JRA is

generally good

A sytemic usually progressive inflammatory disease primarily affecting the spinal colum

ankilosing spondilitis

Which of the following may accompany the use of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause?

breast cancer and cardiovascular complications

Which of the following is necessary for oral hypoglysemic agents to be effective in managing diabetes

release of residual insulin by the pancreas

Which of the following enzimes derived from Escherichia coli is used in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

asparaginase (elspar)

Which of the following are used to suppress the tyroid gland before surgery?

methimazole and propylthiouracil

Which of the following are true about raloxifene hydrochloride (evista)

it has lower incidence of breast cancer as a side effect than other similar medications. It is taken by moth daily.

When the immune system reacts appropriately to an antigen and homeostais is maintained it is termed

immunocompetence

What is dactinomycin (Actinomycin D) used to treat?

wilms tumor of the kidney

Tolerance to self antigens is believed to commence during fetal life?

True

There are not cures for connective tissue diseases; and treatment is only palliative

True

The inflammatory disease of the CNS that attacks the myelin sheath is

multiple sclerosis

The group of diseases that occur when antibodies develop and begin to destroy the bodys own cells is

autoimmune diseases

The patient with a platelet deficiency and the inability of blood to clot has

idipathic thrombocytopenic anemia

The primary treatment of rheumatoid is

a) reduction of inflammation and pain b) preservation of joint function c) prevention of joint deformity. All of the above

The disease that begins with inflammation and edema of the synovial membranes surrounding the joint is

rheumatoid arthritis

The acquired immunity that results when a person has a disease is

active

Pyridostigmine bromide (Mestinon) is the drug of choice for treatment of
A chronic progressive, neuromuscular disease that is characterized by the extreme muscular weakness , generally appearing first in the face an progressive fatige is

myasthenia gravis

Immunoglobulins that provide the ability to recognize foreing organisms stimulating the antigen antibody reaction are called

cells

Decreased gastric production of hydrochloric acid and the resulting shortage of the intrinsic factor cause

pernicious anemia

Autoimmune diseases occur when autoantibodies develop and begin to destroy the bodys own cells

true

A chronic progressive sytemic autoimmune disease of the skin that is characterized by hardening and shrinking of the skin is

systemic scleroderma

What is the drug used to immunize young adults against the causative agent of cervical cancer?

HPV Vaccine (Gardasil)

For what would a patient with AIDS be prescribed megestrol (Megace)?

Anorexia and weight loss

Opportunistic infections can emerge as a result of deficiencies of the immune system

true

A history of repeated, chronic infections, which includes sinopulmonary symptoms e.g. sinus tenderness, cough, fever, runny nose, abnormal sputum, dyspnea, along with gastrointestinal GI symptoms, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weigh loss, is usually indicative of

common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID)

The most common form of immunodeficiency is

selective immunoglobulin A deficiency disease

Symptoms of fever,joint pain, malaise, weight loss, and the characteristic butterfly rash are indication of

Systemic lupus erythematosus

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