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cyst/o

bladder

cyst/o/scopy (sĭs-TŎS-kō-pē): visual examination of the urinary tract using a cystoscope inserted through the urethra
-scopy: visual examination

vesic/o

vesic/o/cele (VĔS-ĭ-kō-sēl): hernial protrusion of urinary
bladder; also called cystocele
-cele: hernia, swelling

glomerul/o

glomerulus

glomerul/ar (glō-MĔR-ū-lăr): pertaining to the glomerulus
-ar: pertaining to

meat/o

opening, meatus

meat/us (mē- -tŭs): opening or tunnel through any part of the body, such as the external opening of the urethra
-us: condition, structure

nephr/o

kidney

nephr/oma (nĕ-FRŌ-mă): tumor of the kidney
oma: tumor

ren/o

ren/al (RĒ-năl): pertaining to the kidney
-al: pertaining to

pyel/o

renal pelvis

pyel/o/plasty (PĪ-ĕ-lō-plăs-tē): surgical repair of renal pelvis
-plasty: surgical repair

ur/o

urine, urinary tract

ur/emia (ū-RĒ-mē-ă): excessive urea and other nitrogenous waste products in blood; also called azotemia
-emia: blood condition

urin/o

urin/ary (Ū-rĭ-nār-ē): pertains to urine or formation of
urine; also refers to the urinary tract
-ary: pertaining to

ureter/o

ureter

ureter/o/stenosis (ū-rē-tĕr-ō-stĕ-NŌ-sĭs): narrowing or stricture of a ureter
-stenosis: narrowing, stricture

urethr/o

urethra

urethr/o/cele (ū-RĒ-thrō-sēl): hernial protrusion of the urethra
-cele: hernia, swelling

Urethrocele may be congenital or acquired and secondary to obesity, childbirth, and poor muscle tone.

-emia

blood condition

azot/emia (ăz-ō-TĒ-mē-ă): excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds in the blood
azot: nitrogenous compounds

Azotemia is a toxic condition caused by the kidneys' failure to remove urea from the blood.

-iasis

abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

lith/iasis (lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs): abnormal condition of stones or calculi
lith: stone, calculus

The calculi occur most commonly in the kidney, lower urinary tract, and gallbladder.

-lysis

separation; destruction; loosening

dia/lysis (dī-ĂL-ĭ-sĭs): process of removing toxic wastes from blood when kidneys are unable to do so
dia-: through, across

-pathy

disease

nephr/o/pathy (nĕ-FRŎP-ă-thē): disease of the
kidneys
nephr: kidney

-pexy

fixation (of an organ)

nephr/o/pexy (NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē): surgical procedure to affix a displaced kidney
nephr/o: kidney

-ptosis

prolapse, downward displacement

nephr/o/ptosis (nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs): downward displacement or dropping of a kidney
nephr/o: kidney

-tripsy

crushing

lith/o/tripsy (LĬTH-ō-trĭp-sē): crushing of a stone
lith/o: stone, calculus

Lithotripsy is a surgical procedure that employs sound waves to crush a stone in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder. The fragments may then be expelled or washed out.

-uria

urine

poly/uria (pōl-ē-Ū-rē-ă): excessive urination
poly-: many, much

glomerul/o/scler/osis

-osis: abnormal condition, increase (used primarily with blood cells); glomerulus; hardening, sclera (white of eye)

cyst/o/scopy

-scopy: visual examination; bladder

poly/uria

-scopy: visual examination; bladder

lith/o/tripsy

-tripsy: crushing; stone, calculus

dia/lysis

-lysis: separation; destruction; loosening; through, across

ureter/o/stenosis

-stenosis: narrowing, stricture; ureter

meat/us

-us: condition, structure; opening, meatus

ur/emia

-emia: blood condition; urine

nephr/oma

-oma: tumor; kidney

ureter/o/cele

-cele: hernia; swelling; ureter

kidney(s)

The CFs nephr/o and ren/o refer to the kidneys. Whenever you see terms such as nephr/itis and ren/al, you will know they refer to the
____________________.

kidney(s)

The term ren/al is commonly used as an adjective used to modify a noun. Some examples are ren/al dialysis and ren/al biopsy. Both of these terms mean pertaining to the ____________________.

nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē

A diseased kidney, or renal cancer, may necessitate its removal. Use nephr/o to form a word that means excision of a kidney. __________ / ____________________

nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē

When ren/al cancer occurs, the diseased kidney must be removed. The surgical procedure to remove a kidney is known as a __________ / ___________________.

nephr/o/megaly
nĕf-rō-MĔG-ă-lē

When nephr/ectomy is performed, the remaining kidney most likely will become enlarged. Build a word that means enlargement of a kidney.
__________ / _____ / ____________________

lith/iasis
lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs

The suffi x -iasis is used to describe an abnormal condition (produced by something specified).
An abnormal condition of stones is called
__________ / __________.

nephr/o/lith
NĔF-rō-lĭth

Use nephr/o to construct medical words that mean
stone (in the) kidney: __________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs

abnormal condition of kidney stone(s):
___________ / _____ / __________ / __________

nephr/algia
nĕ-FRĂL-jē-ă

pain in the kidney: __________ / __________

nephr/itis
nĕf-RĪ-tĭs

infl ammation of the kidney: __________ / __________

stone

Nephr/o/lith and ren/al calculus mean the patient suffers from a kidney ___________.

nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs

A disorder that literally means abnormal condition of a kidney stone is:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________.

incision, stone or calculus

Stones trapped in the kidney or ureter may be removed surgically. Nephr/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ to remove a ren/al
____________________.

ren/al
RĒ-năl

pertaining to the kidney(s): __________ / __________

stenosis
stĕ-NŌ-sĭs

narrowing, stricture: ____________________

glomerul/o/nephr/itis
glō-mĕr-ū-lō-nĕ-FRĪ-tĭs

inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney:
____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________

hyper/tension
hī-pĕr-TĔN-shŭn

high blood pressure: __________ / ____________________

protein/uria
prō-tē-ĭn-Ū-rē-ă

A chronic loss of protein in the urine is called
____________________ / __________.

swelling

The term edema indicates ____________________.

edema
ĕ-DĒ-mă

When body tissues contain excessive amounts of fl uid that cause swelling, the term designated in a medical report for this condition would be noted as ___________.

diuretic
dī-ū-RĔT-ĭc

Diuretics are agents or drugs prescribed to control edema and also to stimulate the flow of urine. Edema around the ankles and feet may also be due to a diet high in sodium. When this condition occurs, the physician may recommend a low-sodium diet and prescribe an agent known as a ____________________.

diuretic
dī-ū-RĔT-ĭc

Coffee increases production of urine, which means that coffee is a ____________________ agent.

supra-
ren
-al

Supra/ren/al is a directional term that means above the kidney.
Identify elements in this frame that mean
above, excessive, superior: ___________
kidney: ___________
pertaining to: __________

scler/o

The CF scler/o is used in words to indicate hardening of a body part. It also refers to the sclera (white of eye).

To indicate a hardening, use the CF __________ / _____.

nephr/osis
nĕf-RŌ-sĭs

abnormal condition of a kidney:
__________ / __________

nephr/o/scler/osis
nĕf-rō-sklĕ-RŌ-sĭs

abnormal condition of kidney hardening:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________

nephr/o/lith
NĔF-rō-lĭth

calculus in a kidney: __________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/lith/iasis
nĕf-rō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs

abnormal condition of kidney stone(s):
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________

-megaly

The suffix for enlargement is ____________________.

nephr/o/megaly
nĕf-rō-MĔG-ă-lē

Use nephr/o to create a word that means enlargement of a kidney. __________ / _____ / ____________________

kidney, stone or calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs

Lith/o/tomy is an incision to remove a stone or calculus. A nephr/o/lith/o/tomy is an incision of the ____________________ to remove a ____________________.

nephr/ectomy
nĕ-FRĔK-tō-mē

excision of a kidney: __________ / ____________________

nephr/o/rrhaphy
nĕf-ROR-ă-fē

suture of a kidney: __________ / _____ / _______________

nephr/o/tomy
nĕ-FRŎT-ō-mē

incision of the kidney: __________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/lith/o/tomy
nĕf-rō-lĭth-ŎT-ō-mē

incision (to remove a) kidney stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs

A prolapsed kidney is noted in a medical chart as
__________ / _____ / ____________________.

-ptosis
nephr/o

Determine the element in nephr/o/ptosis that means
prolapse, downward displacement: ___________________
kidney: __________ / _____

nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs

Downward displacement of a kidney that results from a congenital defect or an injury is called
__________ / _____ / ____________________.

nephr/o/pexy
NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē

Nephr/o/ptosis can be treated surgically. Use -pexy to build a surgical term that means fixation of the kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________.

-osis

____________________ abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

-iasis

____________________ abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

supra-

____________________ above; excessive; superior

-pathy

____________________ disease

-megaly

____________________ enlargement

dia-

____________________ through, across

-pexy

____________________ fixation (of an organ)

scler/o

____________________ hardening; sclera (white of eye)

-tome

____________________ instrument to cut

-tomy

____________________ incision

nephr/o, ren/o

____________________ kidney

-ptosis

____________________ prolapse, downward displacement

lith/o

____________________ stone, calculus

-rrhaphy

____________________ suture

poly-

____________________ many, much

ureters
Ū-rĕ-tĕrs

Locate the two pencil-like tubes that transport urine
from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. These structures are the ____________________.

enlargement, ureter(s)
Ū-rĕ-tĕr

The CF ureter/o means ureter. Ureter/o/megaly is an ____________________ of the ____________________.

ureter/o
-ectasis

Ureter/ectasis is a dilation of the ureter.
The CF for ureter is ____________________ / _____.
The element that denotes dilation or expansion is ____________________.

calculi
KĂL-kū-lī

When there is one stone, it is referred to as a calculus, but multiple stones are referred to as ____________________.

calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs

The term lith/o/tripsy means crushing of a stone, or ____________________.

ureter/o/lith
ū-RĒ-tĕr-ō-lĭth

stone or calculus in the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / __________

ureter/o/lith/iasis
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-lĭth-Ī-ă-sĭs

abnormal condition (produced by something specified) of a ureter(al) stone:
____________________ / _____ / __________ / __________

incision, ureter, stone or calculus
Ū-rĕ-tĕr, KĂL-kū-lŭs

Ureter/o/lith/o/tomy is an ____________________ of a
____________________ to remove a ____________________.

dilation, ureter
DĪ-lā-shŭn, Ū-rĕ-tĕr

Ureter/ectasis is an expansion or ____________________ of a ____________________.

ureter/ectasis
ū-rē-tĕr-ĔK-tă-sĭs

When ren/al calculi get trapped in the ureter, urine is blocked, causing pressure on the walls of the ureter. This blockage results in an expansion or dilation of the ureter, which is called
____________________ / ____________________.

cyst/o/lith
SĬS-tō-lĭth

stone in the bladder: __________ / _____ / __________

cyst/o/lith/iasis
sĭs-tō-lĭ-THĪ-ă-sĭs

abnormal condition of a bladder stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / __________

cyst/o/lith/o/tomy
sĭs-tō-lĭth-ŎT-ō-mē

incision of the bladder to remove a stone:
__________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________

instrument, ureter
ū-rē-tĕr

A ureter/o/cyst/o/scope is a special ________________ for examining the ____________________ and bladder.

ureter/algia
ū-rē-tĕr-ĂL-jē-ă

When ureter/o/liths become trapped in the ureter, a person may experience ureter/o/dynia or ____________________ / __________.

ureter/o/liths
ū-RĒ-tĕr-ō-lĭths

stones in the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / __________

ureter/o/cyst/o/scope
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-SĬS-tō-skōp

instrument to view the ureter and bladder:
______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________

ureter/o/cyst/o/scopy
ū-rē-tĕr-ō-sĭs-TŎS-kō-pē

visual examination of the ureter and bladder:
______________ / _____ / __________ / _____ / __________

suture
SŪ-chūr

The surgical suffix -rrhaphy is used in words to mean
____________________.

ureter/o/rrhaphy
ū-rē-tĕr-OR-ră-fē

suture of the ureter:
____________________ / _____ / ____________________

cyst/o/rrhaphy
sĭs-TOR-ă-fē

suture of the bladder:
__________ / _____ / ____________________

vesic/o, cyst/o

The CFs for bladder are __________ / _____ and
__________ / _____.

bladder, intestine

Vesic/o/enter/ic means pertaining to the ____________________ and ____________________.

bladder
hernia, swelling
rectum
RĔK-tŭm

cyst/o: ____________________
-cele: ________________, _________________
rect/o: ____________________

cyst/o/cele
SĬS-tō-sēl

When the physician's diagnosis is a herniation of the bladder, you know the Dx will be stated as a __________ / _____ / __________.

rect/o/cele
RĔK-tō-sēl

Can you determine the Dx of herniation of the rectum into the vagina?
__________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/ptosis
nĕf-rŏp-TŌ-sĭs

prolapse or downward displacement of a kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________

nephr/o/pexy
NĔF-rō-pĕks-ē

surgical fi xation of kidney:
__________ / _____ / __________

cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp

The endo/scope used to perform cyst/o/scopy is called a __________ / _____ / __________.

cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp

To excise polyps from the bladder, the ur/o/logist uses the special instrument called a
__________ / _____ / __________.

cyst/o
-scope
radi/o
-graphy

Determine elements in this frame that mean:

bladder: __________ / _____
instrument for examining: ___________
radiation, x-ray; radius (lower arm bone on thumb side): __________ / _____
process of recording: ____________________

cyst/ectomy
sĭs-TĔK-tō-mē
cyst/o/plasty
SĬS-tō-plăs-tē
cyst/o/scope
SĬST-ō-skōp

Construct surgical terms that mean

excision of the bladder:
__________ / ____________________
surgical repair of the bladder:
__________ / _____ / ____________________
instrument to view the bladder:
__________ / _____ / __________

urethr/o

CF for urethra is __________________ / _____.

urethr/itis
ū-rē-THRĪ-tĭs

infl ammation of the urethra: ____________________ / __________

urethr/ectomy
ū-rē-THRĔK-tō-mē

excision of the urethra:
____________________ / ___________________

urethr/o/pexy
ū-RĒ-thrō-pĕks-ē

surgical fixation of the urethra: ____________________ / _____ / __________

urethr/o/plasty
ū-RĒ-thrō-plăs-tē

surgical repair of the urethra: __________________ / _____ / ______________

pain, urethra
ū-RĒ-thră

Urethr/o/dynia is a ___________ in the ____________________.

urethr/algia
ū-rē-THRĂL-jē-ă

Besides urethr/o/dynia, construct another word that means pain in the urethra: ____________________ / __________.

cyst/itis
sĭs-TĪ-tĭs
urethr/itis
ū-rē-THRĪ-tĭs
UTI

Cyst/itis and urethr/itis are two common lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) that frequently occur in women.

Write terms that mean infl ammation of the
bladder: __________ / __________
urethra: ____________________ / __________
Write the abbreviation for urinary tract infection.
___________

urethr/al
ū-RĒ-thrăl

pertaining to the urethra:
____________________ / __________

lumen
LŪ-mĕn

tubular space within a structure: ___________

urethra, rectum
ū-RĒ-thră, RĔK-tŭm

Urethr/o/rect/al means pertaining to the ____________________ and
____________________.

urethr/o/cyst/itis
ū-rē-thrō-sĭs-TĪ-tĭs

Construct a medical word that means inflammation of urethra and bladder.
___________ / _____ / ________ / __________

urethr/o/scope
ū-RĒ-thrō-skōp

instrument for examining the urethra:
____________________ / _____ / __________

urethr/o/scopy
ū-rē-THRŎS-kō-pē

visual examination of the urethra: ____________________ / _____ / __________

cyst/o/urethr/o/scope
sĭs-tō-ū-RĒ-thrō-skōp

Cyst/o/urethr/o/scopy is a visual examination of the urethra and bladder. The instrument used to perform a cyst/o/urethr/o/scopy is a
_____ / ___ / _____________ / ____ / _______.

-ia

Identify the element in -algia, -dynia, -pepsia, and -phagia that means condition. ___________

malignant
mă-LĬG-nănt

Use malignant or benign to complete the following statements.
Cancerous tumors are ____________________ tumors.

benign
bĕ-NĪN

Noncancerous tumors are ____________________ tumors.

noncancerous

Benign tumors are (cancerous, noncancerous) ____________________ growths.

cancerous

Malignant tumors are (cancerous, noncancerous) ____________________.

pain, gland

The CF aden/o is used in words to denote a gland. Aden/o/dynia is ___________ in a ___________.

gland
cancer
tumor

Urin/ary tract tumors may be benign or malignant. The most common malignant ren/al tumor is an aden/o/carcin/oma.

See if you can define the following elements:
aden/o: ___________
carcin: ____________________
-oma: ___________

aden/oma
ăd-ĕ-NŌ-mă

benign glandular tumor: __________ / _________

aden/o/carcin/oma
ăd-ĕ-nō-kăr-sĭn-Ō-mă

malignant glandular tumor:
________ / ___ / _______________ / __________

aden/itis
ăd-ĕ-NĪ-tĭs

inflammation of a gland:
__________ / __________

aden/oma
ăd-ĕ-NŌ-mă

tumor of a gland: __________ / __________

aden/o/pathy
ăd-ĕ-NŎP-ă-thē

disease of a gland:
__________ / _____ / __________

urinary tract infections

What does the abbreviation UTIs stand for?
______________ ________ ________________

nephrons
NĔF-rŏnz

Complex structures designed to efficiently filter waste materials from blood are known as ____________________.

inflammation

The CF pyel/o means renal pelvis. Pelvis is a word denoting any bowl-shaped structure. The symptomatic term pyel/itis refers to an
____________________ of the renal pelvis.

pyel/o/pathy
pī-ĕ-LŎP-ă-thē

disease of the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________

pyel/o/tomy
pī-ĕ-LŎT-ō-mē

incision of the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________

pyel/o/stomy
pī-ĕ-LŎS-tō-mē

forming an opening (mouth) into the renal pelvis:
__________ / _____ / __________

-iasis

____________________ abnormal condition (produced by something specified)

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