Nutrition Chapter 9

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weight management

What fraction of the US adult population is overweight or obese?

2/3

What % of people age 2-19 are overweight or obese?

33

Has the prevalence of obesity worldwide increased, decreased, or leveled off in the past few years?

leveled off

What is the classification of a person 6'4 and 202 lbs?

healthy weight

Which of the following is a characteristic of fat cell development?
a. The amount of fat in the body is substantially determined by the size of the fat cells
b. More and larger fat cells are found in obese people compared with healthy-weight persons
c. Fat cell number increases most readily during early adulthood, when energy expenditure declines
d. Fat cells may enlarge but not increase in number upon reaching the age of 50 in males and reaching menopause in women

mroe and larger fat cells are found in obese people than in healthy weight people

. All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
a. the number decreases when fat is lost from the body.
b. the size is larger in obese people than in normal-weight people.
c. the storage capacity for fat depends on both cell number and cell size.
d. the number increases several-fold during the growth years and tapers off when adult status is reached.

the number decreases when fat is lost from the body

What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity?

Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty

What promotes fat storage in adipocytes?

Lipoprotein lipase

What explains why women store fat around the hips whereas men store fat around the abdomen?

the gender differences in the activity of lipoprotein lipase

All of the following are features of fat cell metabolism in men and women except
a. the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men.
b. fat storage in adipose as well as muscle tissue is regulated by sex-specific hormones.
c. lipoprotein lipase enzyme activity is regulated by a gene that responds to weight loss.
d. fat storage in men develops primarily across the abdomen whereas in women it is found chiefly around the hips and thighs.

the rate of fat breakdown is higher in women than in men

Which of the following is a feature of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme?
a. Its activity decreases after weight loss but then rebounds quickly after resuming normal food intake
b. Its activity can always increase but cannot decrease and is, in part, controlled by the ratchet effect of metabolism
c. Its activities in men and women are sex-related and explain the differences in major fat storage regions of the body
d. Its low activity in obese people explains, in part, the inability to mobilize storage fat for energy when following an energy-restricted diet

its activities in men and women are sex related and explain the differences in major fat storage regions of the body

Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of the fat cells is termed

hypertrophic obesity

Adverse effects on organs such as the liver from the presence of excess body fat is known as

lipotoxicity

Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed

hyperplasic obesity

What defines the body's set point?

the point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

What is Prader-Willi syndrome?

a genetic disorder resulting in obesity

Which of the following is a feature of weight gain and genetics?
a. Obese people can change their genome but not their epigenome
b. Even mild exercise can minimize the genetic influence on weight gain
c. Genetics is the overwhelming factor that determines a person's risk for weight gain
d. Identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared with fraternal twins

identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared to fraternal twins

On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act?

hypothalamus

Injection of leptin has what kind of effect on fat cell number in mice? (raises, lowers, no change)

lowers

What are the observed effects of sleep deprivation on leptin and ghrelin?

Leptin decreases while ghrelin increases

As a new assistant in a weight-loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart?
a. Leptin deficiency causes lower levels of ghrelin
b. Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
c. Leptin deficiency causes psychological depression, which leads to increased food intake
d. Leptin deficiency reduces the desire to do physical activity, resulting in more excess energy available for fat storage

Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure

Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
a. Fat cell sensitivity to leptin is higher in obese people
b. A deficiency of leptin is characteristic of all obese people
c. Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
d. Major functions of leptin include an increase in hunger and a decrease in metabolic rate

Blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat

What is a feature of leptin?

it is a satiety signal

What is a feature of ghrelin?

it stimulates appetite and energy storage

Why is weight loss more successful with exercise and after bypass surgery?

Ghrelin levels are low

Which of the following is not a feature of adiponectin?
a. It inhibits inflammation
b. It is secreted from adipose tissue
c. It protects against type 2 diabetes
d. It is higher in obese people compared with lean people

it is higher in obese people compared with lean people

Is adiponectin higher in obese people compared to lean people?

no

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
a. High blood levels are found in obese people
b. Its major role in the body is in suppressing appetite
c. It is secreted by adipocytes and promotes negative energy balance
d. Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa

Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa

Is Ghrelin a satiating hormone?

NO

Does ghrelin promote satiety?

no

What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?

WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE

WHat is the significance of the uncoupling proteins in adipose tissue?

Increased loss of body heat

What type of adipose tissue is most effective in maintaining warmth in cold times?

brown

Which of the following is a characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue?
a. Very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
b. White adipose is especially important in infants as a moderator of temperature extremes
c. The uncoupled reactions in brown and white adipose are the result of LPL-induced hydrolysis of ATP
d. Among the three types of adipose, namely, white, yellow, and brown, the white adipocytes account for the greatest amount of heat expenditure

very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants

What is the chief factor that determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?

hereditary and environment

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