Life Science Test 6 Study Guide

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Cardiovascular System

What is the system that the heart and lungs make up called?

Carries needed substances, carries waste products away from cells, contains cells that fight diseases

Name the three functions of the cardiovascular system.

Aorta

The largest artery that has blood leave the heard; carries oxygen rich blood.

Upper Vena Cava

Returns oxygen poor blood to the upper part of the body to the right atrium.

Right Atrium

Receives oxygen poor blood from the rest of the body.

Valves

Cause the blood to flow in only one direction.

Right Ventricle

Second of the four chambers; pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs.

Lower Vena Cava

Returns oxygen poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium.

Pulmonary Artery

The only artery in the body that carries oxygen poor blood; takes to the lungs.

Pulmonary Vein

The only vein which carries oxygen rich blood; takes to left atrium.

Pulmonary

Having to do with the lungs.

Left Atrium

Receives oxygen rich blood from the lungs.

Valve

Another one of these is under the left atrium.

Left Ventricle

Pumps oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body.

Septum

Muscular wall in the middle of the heart; helps pump blood.

Loop 1

This loop goes to the lungs and back.

Loop 2

This loop goes to the body and back.

Arteries

Always carry blood away from the heart; almost all ________ carry oxygen rich blood, except for the pulmonary _________.

Veins

All ____ carry blood towards the heart. Almost all ____ carry oxygen poor blood, except the pulmonary ____.

Capillaries

Microscopic blood vessels where exchanges take place; brings glucose, oxygen, and takes away carbon dioxide.

Three

How many types of blood vessels are there?

Blood Vessels

There are three types of these.

Pacemaker

A part of the heart that sends an electrical current to the heart to keep it going at a steady pace.

Coronary Artery

Carries blood to the heart itself.

Pulse

The expanding and contracting of the arterial wall, with every beat of the heart.

Three

How many layers do arteries have?

Epithelial Cells

The center layer of an artery.

Smooth Muscle

The layer between the center and the outer layers of an artery.

Connective Tissue

The outermost layer of an artery.

Veins

Have the same layers as arteries, but the muscle layer is much thinner.

Valves

Keep the blood from flowing backwards.

Blood Pressure

A measure of the amount of force that the flowing blood against the artery wall.

Systolic Reading

Measures force of the blood during a heart contraction.

Diastolic Reading

Measures the force of the blood in between heartbeats.

Plasma

The liquid part of the blood; is very bright yellow.

Red Blood Cell

Job is to carry oxygen throughout your body. They have no nuclei and cannot go through mitosis or reproduce. They only live about 4 months and are very busy.

30 Seconds

How long does it take for a red blood cell to do a round trip from the heart and back?

Hemoglobin

An iron-containing protein; what red blood cells are mostly made of.

White Blood Cell

Job is to fight disease. They are much larger than red blood cells.

Platelets

Clot your blood so you don't bleed to death.

Fibrin

The material that makes up a scab after you get cut.

A, B, AB, and O

What are the four major blood types?

Protein Markers

Spots on blood cells that show what type of blood the cell contains.

Type A Protein Markers

What kind of protein markers do people with type A blood have?

Type B Protein Markers

What kind of protein markers do people with type B blood have?

Types A and B Protein Markers

What kind of protein markers do people with type AB blood have?

None

What kind of protein markers do people with type O blood have?

The foreign blood will be attacked and form blood clumps

What happens if the wrong kind of blood is given to you?

Universal Donors

What are people with type O blood called, because they can give to any blood type?

Universal Receivers

What are people with type AB blood called, because they can receive blood from any other type?

A and AB

What blood types can type A give to?

A and O

What blood types can type A receive from?

B and AB

What blood types can type B give to?

B and O

What blood types can type B receive from?

AB

What blood types can type AB give to?

A, B, AB, and O

What blood types can type AB receive from?

A, B, AB, and O

What blood types can type O give to?

O

What blood types can type O receive from?

Rh Factor

A set of 18 different protein markers.

Rh+

Being ___ means you have 1, some, or all 18 types of protein markers.

Rhesus Monkey

What is the Rh Factor named after?

Lymphatic System

This system contains lymph vessels and lymph nodes.

Washes over our cells

What does blood do when it leaks out of the capillaries?

Lymph Nodes

Where do lymph vessels lead to?

Lymph Vessels

These lead to lymph nodes.

Atherosclerosis

The build up of cholesterol in the heart.

Hypertension

Having high blood pressure.

Rests

What does the heart do in between beats?

Leukemia

When red blood cells can't get through because there are too many white blood cells in the way.

Hemophilia

When bruises are dangerous to have.

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