Religious Studies 12 Final

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nai-no bridge

along the path that the Huai soul takes after death; crosses on 3rd day of its travel

yin-yang

earth/heaven

Ten Kings

(chinese religion) Kings of individual hells

Ksitigarbha

the fifth of the ten kings who decides which of the Buddhist six ways of rebirth will befall the souls that are brought before him

kachina

comes back in the form of a cloud being; associated with rain and fertility

Days of the Dead

All three holidays in post-aztecan culture

Fifth Sun

(Aztecan) requires sacrifices and display of the heart to keep the sun burning; different god for each sun

Kwan Clan

sent a bird to lead the emergence into the 4th (current) world

Old Oraibi

(Hopi) oldest inhabited village in the U.S; stepping stone to the 5th world

Sipapuni

"wormhole" between the worlds

merit field

(Theravada Buddhism) the merit economy

Theravada

"Doctrine of the Elders"

Two Wheels of Dhamma

(Theravada) one wheel is the Buddhist monk wheel and the other is the lady monk wheel; both combine to make the merit field

suffrages

masses, prayer, alms

exempla

example

Cisterians

(Catholic) monks who dressed in white robes

Dante

wrote the Divine Comedy and has this vivid imagery of Purgatory

Brahm Baba

ghost/spirit of a Brahmin (Hindu priestly cast) who died a violent or natural death; terrorize

Bhutanatha

Lord of Spirits

twins

placenta of the king that is buried in the royal shrine

Sse-Kabaka

speaks to Kabaka's court through female medium

Kabaka

Bugandan King that is different from other humans

Cynopolis

"Dog City"

Kerberos

three-head Greco-Roman hellbound; twin of Orthos

Cynocephali

dog-headed human

Ghost Month

Seventh Month where ghosts are welcome back home; gates are thrown open so ghosts can have one month vacation

Confucianism

contributes to Chinese popular religion

Tu-tikung

local gods that police the streets making sure no souls prey on living or dead

Ching Ming

clear and bright; Spring cleaning of the graves

marigold

(Aztec) used at the family alter; represented death but resembled the sun

Aztecs

believed that the universe is sustained because gods sacrifice themselves so they must practice that in return

Uto-Aztecan

language family spoken by Hopi and Aztec traditions

Maasaw

(Hopi) Lord of the dead/God of Fire; protector of the 4th World

cloud beings

(Hopi) considered to be departed ancestors; emerge in 6-directional Powamuya Medicine Alter, to bring rain

Mictlantecutli

Lord of the Land of the Skinless; leader of Mictlan

sangha

(Buddhist) monastic order; hierarchy of englightened people; religious figure

petas

hungry and (Buddhism) poor souls that are dependent on the living; rescued through transfer of merit

Augustine

early source of Purgatory; argued that any descendant of Adam could be saved

purgatory

a place that is neither heaven nor hell; when done here, you go to Earthly Paradise

venial sins

sins that can burn off in Purgatory; can be forgiven

indulgences

when Catholic Church claimed people forgiven based on light actions

Saint Patrick's Purgatory

located on Station Island where people would purge for multiple days, fasting for one day

virabhadra

spirits of the dead children

mail

filth/secretion collected from the bottom of the Bhairava; protects against demons

Ggulu

(African) Lord God

Bagandans

bearers of Gandan culture; believed in story of Kintu

hellhound

dog of Hell

Seven Sleepers

Christians slept in a cave for decades avoiding the persecution by Roman Empire; when they awoke, Europe had turned Christian

four-eyed dog

two faces; one peers into the world of the living; the other peers into the world of the dead

Yama

(Hinduism, Buddhism) lord of the dead

Taoism

combines with other (isms) to form popular Chinese religion

p'o

(Chinese) earth soul; placed in a tomb (yin)

hsiao

(Chinese) respect for your elders

kivas

hole in the ground that allows you to "communicate with the dead"; ritual space

offering of the heart

results from the Ball Game; loser sacrifices their heart to the Gods

Coatlicue

mother of the supreme Aztec deity that collects the bodies of the dead (name means serpent)

Xolotl

(Aztec) god related to death; dog-faced god of monsters that was viewed as a guide for the dead on their journey

sand paintings

(Hopi) mandalas

Mictlan

(Aztec) lowest of the underworld; 9th level; four year journey to reach here

reincarnation

death followed by rebirth; cycle

punna

merit that can be accumulated and transferred

Virgin Mary

could bring saints to Purgatory and assist you through it

confession

started in Catholic Church to account for your sins and evaluate how long you would be in Purgatory

Knight Owen

(anonymous work) descends through cave on the island into "true" purgatory where he sees places of torture as well as paradise

ash fruits

used in Indian culture as a representation of dead children

bhut-pret

(Hinduism) the most unhappy dead

possession

"Hostile takeover" of living person by demonic spirits, unhappy dead

Nnabi

(African) diobedient Eve

Walumbe

(African) the serpent/Satan

Anubis

Egyptian psychopomp, embalmer god

psychopomp

dogs that serve "soul guides"

sag-dad

dog's gaze that scares away evil spirits

ancestor tablets

for the Hun soul; had the name of the dead; could fit up to 16 names

Stove God

god praised in each household; most immediate god in your family; evaluates your life and imprints on your forehead

huai

(Chinese) wandering soul that goes on the 49 day journey

emergence

(Hopi) transition to the next world

grave ladder

(Hopi) used on the 4th day after burial

cihuateotl

spirit of the woman who died at birth (resemble Chudels of Hindu tradition)

Quetzalcoatl

(Aztec) twin of Xolotl; serpent deity

petroglyphs

writings on rocks

bhavacakra

(Tibetan) Wheel of Existence; three animals in the middle

Three Baskets

(Theravada Buddhism) Pali Canon: Monastic Rules, Discourse, Higher teachings; Discourse the most important

deva/devi

(Hinduism) male/female aspect of the divine

cardinal sins

can't be purged in purgatory; if not confessed and resolved by priest, you go to hell; can be forgiven

Vision of Perpetua

story of woman who saw a dirty vision of her brother so she continued to pray until he reached heaven (exempla)

Protestant Reformation

protests against sale of indulgences; Martin Luther

Female Seizers

1

mamingie

spirits of women who have died at childbirth

jawbone relic

(Bugandan) jaw of the dead king that is buried in the forest; forest represents the world of the dead

Kintu

(African) Adam

regicide

killing of the king and royal succession

Erlik

(African) god of death

St. Christopher

dog-headed saint that caused problems, was converted to Christianity, then went back to being a dog-human

liminality

state of being "in-between"

spirit money

1

Chenghuang gods

jurisdiction over the city; above Tu-tikung in beauracracy

hun

(Chinese) heaven soul; name inscribed on ancestor tablet (yang)

tzompantli

sculpted rows of skeletons on the wall outside of this temple in Mexico

Maski

(Hopi) world of the dead; Maasaw's House

ball game

competition where the loser would be sacrificed by plunging an obsidian knife and ripping out the heart for offering

Tlalocan

(Aztec) earthly paradise; one of the destinations for dead Aztecs

calaveras

1

Thonatiuh

1

Petavatthu

stories of hungry ghosts from the Discourses text; resembles exempla

arhants

(Theravada Buddhism) arhants that play bodhisattva-type role

pattidana

"merit transfer" to deceased ancestors or the living

Peter the Eater

1

pilgrimage

1

purgatorial fire

idea proposed by Saint Augustine which purges, purifies and saves the dead

All Saint's Day

Day of the Angels; 11/1

chudels

(Hindu) spirit of woman who died in childbirth

Bhairava

a specific Bhutanatha; a black and white version (52 total)

syncretism

combining multiple religions into your belief

ancestors

1

forest (Buganda)

represents the World of the Dead

Dog Days

begins with heliacal rising of Sirius; deadly summer heat and opening of gates of hell

Herakles

(Ancient Greek)

Sirius

the "Dog Star" in Canis Major; heliacal rising of this begins "Dog Days"

Cinvat Bridge

4-eyed dogs guide the dead across this

Martin Luther

1

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