Psychology GRE Supercombo

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Estrus

Period of time in which female is sexually receptive

G. Stanley Hall

Father of developmental psychology

William James

Early functionalist, coined stream of consciousness

Conrad

Letters that sounded similar were most likely to be confused with one another - rehearsal in STM has an acoustic component

Kurt Lewin

Founder of social psychology; leadership styles (laissez-faire, democratic, autocratic), and field theory, regions (each contains an attitude towards something) & boundaries (fluid, more differentiation and permeable connections; vs. rigid, little differentiation and influence between systems and often indicate high stress situations or mental retardation)

Field theory

Behavior must be derived from a totality of coexisting facts, which make up a "dynamic field", which means that the state of any part of the field depends on every other part of it. Behavior depends on the present field rather than on the past or the future.

McCollough effect

Afterimages

Irving Janis

groupthink

Edward Hall

Proxemics

Franz Joseph Gall

Phrenology, associates lumps on head with personality traits

Telegraphic speech

Children's earliest sentences frequently omit many words or word endings

Holophrase

Children's earliest phrases, in which a complete thought is expressed through a single word or phrase

Frederic Bartlett

Reconstructive memory

Albert Ellis

Rational-emotive therapy (RET); therapist challenges irrational beliefs, directive

Secondary gains

Perceived advantages afforded a patient due to an illness, frequently associated with hypochondria

D.W. Winnicott

Object-relations theory

Object-relations theory

In psychotherapy, analyst must serve as an object onto which hostile impulses are projected

Charles Sherrington

First inferred existence of synpases

Abreaction

Freud, uncovering and discharge of a repressed emotion; an essential aspect of therapeutic process; catharsis is the release of this energy

Frederick Nietzsche

Will to power, driving force

J.P. Guilford

Convergent and divergent thinking

Henry Murray

Thematic Apperception Test, need to achieve

Brelands

Instinctual drift

Richard Lazarus

Coping styles; problem-focused and emotion-focused

Jacob Moreno

Psychodrama, patient acts out conflicts

Harry Stack Sullivan

"Significant other"; Interpersonal psychoanalysis and parataxical integrations; 3 modes of existence, self system, you-I interlocking behaviours - prototaxic (primitive, needy, infantile), parataxic distortion (stuck on past ~transference), syntaxic (mature emotional interaction)

Gordon Allport

Functional autonomy, enjoyable activity becomes autotelic; distinguished idiographic and nomothetic approaches, focused on idiographic

Darley & Latane

Diffusion of Responsibility

Emmert's law

Explains size constancy; the farther the object appears, the more scaling brain will compensate for retinal size by enlarging our perception

John Bowlby

Developmental psychology, attachment

McClelland and Rumelhart

Parallel Distributed Processing

George Berkeley

Depth perception cues

Olds and Milner

Implanted electrodes in septal region of rats' brains, rats found stimulation so pleasurable they preferred it to eating even after 24 hrs without food

Francis Galton

Traits and eugenics; also first to study individual differences, led to James McKeen Cattell

James McKeen Cattell

Individual differences (from Francis Galton); previous psychologists only interested in finding commonalities amonst different people; fostered mental testing movement in US

Paivio

Dual-code hypothesis; concrete info encoded visually and verbally, abstract info encoded only verbally; the better the word is at evoking an image, the better the recall

Ebbinghaus

Method of savings, assess amount of material retained from a prior learning task with nonsense syllables; criticism that convenient example does not necessarily generalize to all learning or memory

Zipf's law

Inverse relationship with length of a word and how often it is used

Fritz Heider

Balance theory, attribution theory

Machiavellian personality

Manipulative and deceitful

Titchener

Studied under Wundt; structuralism, introspection

George Sperling

Partial report procedure 3x3 array, sensory memory can store 9 items; contrasted with whole-report procedure 3x3 array thought only could store 4 items

Wertheimer

Founder of Gestalt psychology; used self to study phi and other phenomena

Berko

Gave young children nonsense words and asked them to supply past tense, able to even though they never heard the words before; innate process to drive language development

Avoidance-avoidance conflict

Necessary to choose between two options she'd rather avoid (between 2 undesirable situations)

Alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder

Korsakoff's syndrome: anterograde amnesia, confabulations, thiamine deficiency

John Swets

Signal detection theory

Alfred Adler

Inferiority/superiority; birth order; stressed importance of immediate social imperatives of family and society

Binet

Introduced concept of mental age

Aggressive behaviour distinction between septum, and amygdala/hypothalamus

Septum inhibits aggression, damage leads to sham rage; amygdala/hypothalamus promotes defensive/fighting aggression, damage leads to decrease in aggressive behaviour

Two-factor theory of emotion

Schachter and Singer, ambiguous physiological arousal uses environment to interpret emotion

Thomas Szasz

Mental disorders not really illnesses but traits/behaviours that differ from the cultural norm, forcing them to change rather than dealing with societal causes

Weber's constant

Difference threshold/intensity of standard stimulus

George Miller

7+/-2 in STM

Karen Horney

Strategies people use in relationships to overcome basic anxiety and attain a degree of security (i.e. moving toward/against/away from people)

Robert Zajonc

Social facilitation

Albert Bandura

Vicarious learning, "Bobo doll"

Harry Harlow

Contact comfort, "learning to learn"

Receiver-operating characteristic curves

Graphically summarize responses in signal detection

Neurosis

Freud; intrapsychic conflicts between id, ego, superego; anxiety

General Paresis

Brain disease caused by untreated syphilis

von Meduna

Used electroconvulsive therapy to treat schizophrenia

Hermann Witkin

Relationship between personality and perception of the world; field in/dependence; rod-and-frame test, later embedded figures test

Petty and Cacioppo

Elaboration likelihood model of persuasion; central and peripheral route to persuasion, if issue is meaningful/relevant, it is the central route, and we follow more attentively

Arnold Gesell

Believed maturation (nature) and not environment (nurture) was primary in development

Dorothea Dix

Advocate of treating hospitalized mentally ill humanely

Kohler

Chimps & insight

Carol Gilligan

Criticized Kohlberg's moral development, idea that women adopt an interpersonal orientation netiher more/less mature than the principle-bound thinking of men

Julian Rotter

Locus of control

Craik and Lockhart

Levels/depth-of-processing-theory; physical, acoustical, semantic; the deeper the processing, the greater the effort, the better memory of material

Sterotaxic instrument

Aids in implanting electrodes at specific coordinates in animal's brain

Karl von Frisch

Honeybees dance

Social exchange theory

Person weights rewards and costs of interacting with another; to equity theory

Equity theory

We consider not only our own but others' rewards and costs, prefer ratio same as the other

Gain-loss principle

Evaluation that changes has more impact than one that remains constant

Theory of need complementarity

People choose relationships so they mutually satisfy each other's needs

Social comparison theory

Affiliation is related to need to evaluate own opinions and abilities

Walter Mischel

Believes human behaviour is largely determined by the situation rather than traits

Starke Hathaway

One of the developers of MMPI

McGuire

Inoculation theory

George Kelly

People are intuitive scientists, who devise and test predictions about behaviour of people in their lives; suggested fundamental characteristic of human personality was the need to know and control their environment

Encopresis

"Paradoxical diarrhea", involuntary fecal soiling in already toilet trained children

Supertitious behaviour example

Pigeon rewarded every 20s regardless of behaviour, by the end, frequency of grooming responses increased

Cognitive theory of gender-role development would state...

Children are motivated to act in gender-consistent ways because they try to conform to their own gender schemas

Edward Tolman

"purposive behaviourism" (behaviour towards a goal objected by pure behaviourists), "sign-gestalt learning"; rats in mazes; expectancy-value theory

Erich Fromm

Social psychologist, critical theory

Scaffolding

Provision of sufficient support at first, slowly removed to promote own cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning skills and behaviour

Harold Kelley

Notion of consensus: behaviour across people depend on 1) consistency, 2) distinctiveness, 3) consensus

Martin Fishbein and Icek Aizen

Theory of reasoned action/planned behaviour; most predictive persuasion theories, grounded in various theories of attitudes (learning, expectancy-values, consistency, attribution)
Theory of planned behaviour (Fishbein) = link between attitudes and behaviour, predict behaviour based on (1) perceived behavioural control + (2) attitude toward behaviour + (3) behavioural intentions
Theory of reasoned action (Aizen) = Extends theory and adds "perceived behavioural control" from self-efficacy; if evaluation suggests behaviour as positive and others want this, motivation is increased

Wada test

"Intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure"; barbituate injected to establish cerebral language and memory representation of each hemisphere

Pneumoencephalography

CSF drained...X-ray

Electrooculography

Resting potential of retina

Plethysmography

Measures changes in volume in an organ or whole body

Jerome Kagan

Temperament is stable over time, certain behaviours in infancy are predictive of adolescence; some young children have stronger physiological reactions to new situations than others, these children are more likely to display shyness

Instrumental aggression

Intends to harm to achieve another goal; harm is the means of securing a reward/goal; contrasted with hostile aggression where harm is not incidental

Clark Hull

Drive-reduction theory; motives can be described as a search for homeostasis (e.g. mice will learn to negotiate a maze to obtain a substance with nutritional value)

Large bilateral lesion in orbitofrontal cortex causes behaviour disturbances...likely symptom?

Responds appropriately to hypothetical moral dilemmas, but fails to exhibit normal social behaviour in own life

An argument central to view that innate factors are important in language acquisition

Linguistic cues that are available in environment are too limited to enable language learning

Brain structure that inhibits parental behaviours in rodents

Medial amygdala

When reading, literate adults vary least in...

The number of letters perceived during a given eye fixation

Relationship between emotional disclosure and immune functioning indicates...

Expressing negative emotions is associated with increased immune function, whereas inhibiting negative emotions is associated with decreased immune functioning

activating effects of sex hormones

Temporary, reversible effects that sex hormones have on sexual drive

differentiating effects of sex hormones

Effects of sex hormones that create the long lasting structural differences between males and females of a species

Additive colour mixing

Mixing of coloured lights by superimposing to reflect off same surface; each light adds to total set of wavelengths reflected to the eye

Subtractive colour mixing

Mixing of pigments where each pigment absorbs a different set of wavelengths of light that would otherwise be reflected to the eye

Allocentrism

Personality characteristic that corresponds with a collectivist manner of thinking and acting, highly concerned with personal relationships and interest of the groups to which one belongs

Ideocentrism

Personality characteristic that corresponds with an individualist manner of thinking and acting, concerned more with one's own interests and independence than with the interests of the group

Altruistic punishment

Punishment administered by one person to another that benefits the group as a whole but costs the punisher more than he gains

Alzheimer's disease

Characterized by progressive deterioration in cognitive functioning and presence of amyloid plaques (deposits in brain); related to Acetylcholine

Amygdala

Part of limbic system and is important for evaluating emotional and motivational significance of stimuli and generating emotional responses

Analogy

In ethology and comparative psychology, any similarity among species that is not due to common ancestry, but has evolved independently because of similarity in habitats or lifestyles

Homology

In ethology and comparative psychology, any similarity among species that exists because of common ancestry

Arcuate nucleus

A nucleus in hypothalamus that plays a critical role in control of appetite

Artificial selection

Deliberate selective breeding

Association

Link between two memories or mental concepts, such that recall of one tends to promote recall of the other

Association areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that receive input from the primary or secondary sensory areas for more than one sensory modality (e.g. vision and hearing) and are involved in associating this input with stored memories, in the processes of perception, thought, and decision making

Auditory masking

Phenomenon by which one sound (usually a lower-frequency sound) tends to prevent the hearing of another sound (usually higher frequency)

Basal ganglia

The large masses of gray matter in the brain that lie on each side of the thalamus; important for initiation and coordination of deliberate movements

Error

Refers to random variability in research results, contrasted with bias

Binocular disparity

Depth cue; the farther away the object, the more similar are the two views of it

Bipolar cells

Neurons in retina that receive input from receptors (rods and cones) and form synapses on ganglion cells (which form optic nerve)

Bipolar I disorder

The most severe type of bipolar disorder, characterized by at least one episode of mania and one episode of major depression

Bipolar II disorder

The type of bipolar disorder in which the manic phase is less extreme (hypomania) than in Bipolar I disorder

Brainstem

The primitive, stalklike portion thought of as an extension of the spinal cord into the head; consists of medulla, pons, midbrain

Broca's aphasia

Loss of language production due to damage of Broca's area; characterized by telegraphic speech in which meaning is usually clear but small words and endings that serve grammatical purposes are missing; also called non-fluent aphasia

Wernicke's aphasia

Loss of language comprehension due to damage of Wernicke's area; speech typically retains grammatical structure but loses its meaning due to speaker's failure to provide meaningful content words (n., v., adj., adv.); also called fluent aphasia

Catatonic behaviour

A symptom of schizophrenia, unresponsiveness to environment; may be active resistance, excited motor activity, or complete lack of movement or awareness of environment

Central drive system

According to the central-state theory of drives, a set of neurons in the brain that when active, most directly promotes a specific motivational state, or drive

Central-state theory of drives

Theory that the most direct physiological bases for motivational states, or drives, lie in neural activity. According to most versions, different drives correspond to activity in different, localizable sets of neurons

Central executive

In Baddeley's theory, a component of the mind responsible for coordinating all the activities of working memory and for bringing new information into working memory

Cerebellum

The relatively large, conspicuous, convoluted portion for the brain attached to the rear side of the brainstem; important for coordination of rapid movements

Cochlear implant

A type of hearing aid used to treat sensorineural deafness; transforms sounds into electrical impulses and directly stimulates tips of auditory neurons in cochlea

Sensorineural deafness

Deafness due to damage to cochlea, the hair cells, or auditory neurons

Conduction deafness

Deafness that occurs when ossicles of middle ear become rigid and cannot carry sounds inward from the tympanic membrane to cochlea

Concordance

In behavioural genetics research, an index of heritability that is found by identifying a set of individuals who have a particular trait or disorder and then determining the percentage of some specific class of their relatives (e.g. identical twins) who have the same trait or disorder

Content morphemes

Words, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, that are most essential to the meaning of a sentence

Grammatical morphemes

The class of words, suffixes, and prefixes that serve primarily to fill out the grammatical structure of a sentence rather than to carry its main meaning

Contingency management

In behaviour therapy, any systematic alteration in relationship (contingency) by operant conditioning designed to alter client's behaviour positively

Control processes

Int he modal model of the mind, mental processes that operate on information in the memory stores and move information from one store to another

Conversion disorder

A category of somatoform disorder in which the person, for psychological reasons, loses some bodily function

Creole language

A new language, with grammatical rules, that develops from a pidgin language in colonies established by people who had different native languages

Pidgin language

A primitive system of communication that emerges when people with different native languages colonize the same region; uses words from various native languages and has either no or minimal grammatical structure

Descriptive study

Any study in which the researcher describes behaviour of an individual or set of individuals without systematically investigating relationships between specific variables

Deterministic fallacy

The mistaken belief that genes control, or determine, behaviour in a manner that is independent of environmental influences

Differential lighting of surfaces

A pictorial cue for perceiving depth in which the amount of light reflecting on different surfaces indicates position of objects relative to light source

Dualism

The philosophical theory that two distinct systems - material body and immaterial soul- are involved in control of behaviour

Materialism

Hobbe's theory that nothing exists but matter and energy

Empiricism

Idea that all human knowledge and thought ultimately come from sensory experience

Nativism

Idea that certain elementary ideas are innate to the mind and do not need to be gained through experience