negative impact of humans on the environment
the study of the impact of humans on the environment
The study of how living things interact with eachother and with their non-living environment
Hunters and Gatherers
people who survive by eating animals that they have caught or plants they have gathered
The time when human begins first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
any natural substance, organism, or energy form that living things use
a natural resource that can be restored
Non Renewable Resource
exists in a fixed amount and is used up faster than it can be replaced
When a large fraction of the resource has been used up
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities
any material that can be broken down and recycled
cannot be broken down by natural processes
the number of different species in a given area
When human interference causes mass amounts of animals/plants to die
Tragedy of the Commons
Title of an Article written Garrett Harden, 1968, said there will always be a struggle because individuals will use up resources that are common even though that's not what they intend.
Countries that have many industries and advanced technology.
countries with few industries and simple technology
The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to support a person or population.
The ability to keep in existence or maintain. A sustainable ecosystem is one that can be maintained
Cost Benefit Analysis
when you compare the costs and the benefits of a decision
evaluation of the short-term and long-term risks associated with a particular activity or hazard; usually compared to benefits in a cost-benefit analysis
A material can be converted and reused...ex. Paper
Supply and Demand
when there are less goods and high demand and prices are high/ when there are lots of goods and there's low demand, the prices are low
Lab Report Sections
Introduction, Materials, Procedure, Data, Analysis, Conclusion
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
the group in an experiment that receives experimental treatment
variable that is changed in an experiment
variable that may change as a result of the independent variable
raw data that is organized in a table
a prediction about the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment
a mistake a human made while following the procedure
a flaw in the design of the procedure
1st Law of Thermodynamics
the law that states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed
the ability to do work/ move
States of Matter
solid, liquid, gas, plasma
a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
the idea that the atoms that make up matter are in constant motion
The metric unit of temperature measurement.
a unit of measurement that measures the movement of molecules
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
the law that states that in order for motion to stop we have to reach absolute zero
The transfer of energy in the form of rays, waves, or particles
The transfer of energy between the particles of matter (typically a solid)
The transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of the currents within
allows for energy transfer (metals)
slows energy transfer (non metals, glass, paper)
Layers of the Atmosphere
troposphere , stratosphere , ionosphere (mesosphere , thermosphere) , exosphere
a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
small particles in atmosphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer
the layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night
the layer of the atmosphere that fades into outer space
a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid
process by which atmospheric gases trap heat close to Earth's surface and prevent it from escaping into space
rate at which the troposphere cools as you move up in elevation
In the stratosphere, protects us from UV radiation
Found in the troposphere and damages human health and vegetation
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
when harmful substances build up in the air to unhealthy levels
a pollutant that is put directly into the air by human activity
pollutant formed by the chemical reactions of other primary or secondary pollutants
gases released into the air, especially by cars and factories
a mixture of chemicals that occurs as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere- usually happens when there is no wind and lots of air pollution
poisonous gas given off by cars and tobacco
a colorless gas that forms when nitrogen and oxygen gas in air react at high-combustion temperatures in automobile engines and coal-burning plants
a colorless toxic gas (SO2) that occurs in the gases from volcanoes- used in many manufacturing processes and present in industrial emissions; causes acid rain
Volatile Organic Compounds
organic compounds that exist as gases in the air
tiny particles of liquid or solid matter
converts harmful pollutants inside the car to CO2 and less harmful substances, water, and Nitrogen
controls serious gases, particles, and chemicals
A gas that arises from the earth where radioactive materials are present.
from furniture, carpeting, colorless gas that has a strong odor, very common industrial and commercial chemical...used to make building materials and household products
Clean Air Act
Authorized the EPA to control vehicle emissions
silica fiber product used for insulation
Unnecessary lights that are pointing upward and wasting energy- harmful to living organisms (turtles)
pollution that is not harmful to the environment, yet is only harmful to humans if it is above a certain decible level (120db.)
unit of measurement that measures sound intensity
the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
Long-term prevailing weather conditions
distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees
slanting or sloping; not straightforward or direct
movement of air caused by warm air rising and cooler air moving in to replace it
The side of a mountain that faces the oncoming wind
on the side away from the wind
6-18 month period in which warm, wet air from the pacific hits southern US and Central American
a climate event in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which surface waters are colder than normal
the surface features of a place or region. includes hills, valleys, streams, lakes, bridges, tunnels, and roads.
the tilt of the earth determined where the sun rays hit the earth
method for studying climate change by drilling cores in ice caps and glaciers that have built up over thousands of years- checks on pollution, global warming, and CO2 levels
a layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun
Chlorine compounds that are the main cause of ozone depletion.
a thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring.
Polar Stratopheric Clouds
High-altitude clouds made of water and nitric acid
meeting in 1987 where a group of nations met in Canada and agreed to take steps to fight against Ozone Depletion-CFC's banned
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Heat absorbtion by Earth
Graph measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere
Requires developed countries to decrease emissions of CO2 by an avg. of 5%
Informs public about what's happening in the atmospher, does tests, etc.
Combustible materials such as oil, coal and natural gas that are composed of the remains of formerly living material.
a device that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy
Coal Fired Power Plant
Power Plant powered by burning coal
another name for oil
oil that has been discovered but remains unused in the ground
converts the movement of wind into electric energy
Fuel that comes from plant material and animal waste
use heat that's generated from inside the earth, steam turns a turbine. non polluting.
The energy captured by transforming the wave motion of water into electrical energy using a turbine
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy.
using waste heat to make electricity
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
A material that cannot be recycled and reused
the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)