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Questions for the Arizona FFA Food Science CDE online test

As popcorn heats, the _____ inside each kernel expands. Pressure builds, causing the corn to pop.

water

Mouthfeel, one of several sensory sensations that contribute to the perception of flavor, is influenced by a food's:

temperature

The preventative food safety concept called _____ has seven principles.

HACCP

The enzyme _____ causes milk to coagulate by converting the milk protein casein into a compound called paracasein.

rennin

The _____ on a package of chocolate chip cookies tells the consumer what nutrients are in the product.

Nutrition Facts panel

When you eat breakfast in the morning, digestion of your cereal starts in your:

mouth

Fat in products such as peanut butter and potato chips can _____ over time to become rancid, causing undesirable flavors and colors.

oxidize

For consumer safety, ground beef should always be cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 160 degrees F before it is consumed. This would be equal to _____ degrees C.

71.1

A _____ is a foodborne illness that occurs when microorganisms grow in food and produce a toxin in the food. The toxin causes illness when the food is consumed.

food intoxication

Sulfating is sometimes used for pretreatment of fruits and vegetables that are to be dehydrated in order to:

slow oxidation and enzymatic browning

In the process of canning green beans, the point in the beans that is the last to reach the temperature considered safe for killing microorganisms is known as the:

cold point

The chemical state of the meat protein _____ determines the color of meat.

myoglobin

The addition of vitamin A to margarine is an example of food:

fortification

Food will keep colder longer in an ice chest with ice at 0 degrees C compared to an ice chest with water at 0 degrees C because of the:

latent heat of fusion

Meat is composed of fibrous proteins called:

actin and myosin

BHT is an ingredient added to Cap'n Crunch cereal to:

prevent rancidity

The pH scale is a mathematical scale in which the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution is expressed as a number from 0 to ___ to indicate acidity.

14

When a food processing plant is cleaned and sanitized, a bacteriostatic agent may be used that will:

inhibit the growth of bacteria but does not necessarily kill them

The F-value is the:

number of minutes required to destroy a specific number of microbes at 250 degrees F

Butter contains a high amount (about 4 percent) of _____ acid, which is a short chain fatty acids that gives butter a buttery aroma, especially as it warms up.

butyric

Sugar, one of the most common sweeteners in the world, is derived primarily from:

sugar cane and sugar beets

An egg foam is formed by beating egg white. Denatured by beating, the egg protein forms a:

colloidal dispersion

_____ is a packaging technology used for some vegetable, meat, and potato products that creates a specific gaseous environment so the food product has a longer shelf life.

Modified atmosphere packaging

Since 1963, _____ has helped nations agree on food safety and trade regulation.

Codex Alimentarius

Swiss cheese has holes because it is ripened with organisms that produce:

carbon dioxide gas

Gelatin is made by taking _____, a protein that is not easily soluble in water, and altering its structure, and then reforming it with the addition of a sweetening agent, a flavorant for taste, and a colorant.

collagen

The government agency that created a special class of additives that are generally recognized as safe was the:

FDA

The most important ingredient in bread is _____ because it determines the texture.

flour

_____ is a pigment that contributes to the red color of tomatoes and raspberries.

Anthocyanin

_____ is a nutritive sweetener because it produces calories when it is metabolized in the body.

Sucrose

Vegetables such as lettuce wilt, or become limp, when _____ is lost.

turgor

_____ is an ingredient used in cured meat that inhibits the growth of Clostridium botulinum.

Sodium nitrite

A _____ is a piece of equipment that is used to provide a steady supply of circulated, heated air to dry foods.

dehydrator

Oil and water will not mix together in a salad dressing because they are:

immiscible

Butterscotch pudding that has been thickened with starch can experience retrogradation if held in the refrigerator for a few days and have:

syneresis

_____ is related to a food's hydrogen ion concentration, or with the acid's potential for ionization.

sourness

Hot dogs, cold cuts, and soft cheeses are ready-to-eat foods that have been known to be responsible for foodborne outbreaks due to _____. This organism can survive at greater temperature extremes than most other organisms.

Listeria monocytogenes

_____ is a scale for relating specific gravity to sugar content in a beverage.

Brix

In milk, the enzyme lactase breaks down lactose, or milk sugar, into _____ and glucose.

galactose

Most of the world's supply of cocoa comes from:

West Africa

Sourdough bread has a unique flavor that is due to the presence of:

Lactobacillus

Table sugar is composed of:

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Baking powder is a leavening compound that contains baking soda, _____, and starch or some other filler.

dry acids

Cream creates a better foam than milk because:

it is more viscous than milk

Nabisco markets Oreo Double Stuff sandwich cookies. One serving, equivalent to 1 ounce, contains 7 grams of fat, 2.5 grams of saturated fat, 0 mg of cholesterol, 120 mg of sodium, 21 grams of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 13 grams of sugar, and 1 gram of protein. One serving would be equivalent to _____ calories.

151

After World War II, studies were conducted to replace erucic acid in rapeseed oil with _____ to create canola oil.

oleic acid

To obtain the most reliable sensory information from people about a food product, it is recommended that sensory scientists hold sensory evaluation panels in:

late morning or midafternoon

A component in chili peppers called _____ makes them hot and may cause a burning sensation in your mouth when food containing chili peppers is consumed.

capsaicin

A food scientist is developing a new product and needs to use a sugar that is not only the sweetest, but also the most soluble from an available list of sweeteners that they have in their product development lab. To meet these criteria, which of the of the following sweeteners would you recommend that they use?

Fructose

HACCP, a dynamic, preventative food safety concept, has ___ principles.

7

Less tender cuts of meat can be tenderized by using enzymes in _____ that are extracted from the papaya fruit.

papain

The government agency that has oversight for regulating the safety and quality of seafood is the:

FDA

_____ is a taste component that is best describes as savory, pungent, deliciousness, or musty.

Umami

Water activity is used to determine the:

amount of free water available for microorganisms to grow in a food product

Harry's BBQ company processes their BBQ sauce at ambient temperature, which is currently 68 degrees F. This would be equivalent to ___ degrees C.

20

A solution containing more OH- ions than H+ ions is considered to be a(n) _____ solution.

basic

Isoflavones are phytochemicals that have been shown to possibly help reduce the risk of some cancers. Isoflavones are found in products such as Silk®, a non dairy beverage, and are derived from:

soy

Oxidases are enzymes in vegetables that are activated by:

blanching

Castleberry's Food Company initiated a voluntary recall of canned chili sauce and meat products dues to the risk of a potent neurotoxin being present from under-processing the canned products. The organism, _____, is responsible for producing this toxin.

Clostridium botulinum

Oil floats above water in salad dressing because oil has a lower _____ than water.

density

Producing food by natural methods that fit with local needs and conditions is considered:

sustainable farming

Milk that has been first sterilized by heat, and then placed in sterilized containers for retail sale at ambient temperature has undergone:

aseptic processing

The D-value is the:

length of time required at a specific temperature to destroy 90% of the microorganisms present

Potato chips are commonly sealed in packages flushed with pure nitrogen to minimize oxidation that would lead to unpleasant flavors, otherwise known as:

rancidity

_____ is a vegetable gum added to evaporated milk before processing to stabilize the casein proteins.

Carrageenin

A complete protein is a protein that contains all the essential:

amino acids

Food components such as fat that do not dissolve in water are considered:

insoluble

Butter is a _____ food emulsion.

water-in-oil

The mass percent of 15 g of salt (sodium chloride) in 85 g of water is equal to:

15

Fermentation is a production step in the process of making _____.

vanilla

_____ wheat is the type of wheat most commonly used to manufacture pasta.

Durum

_____ is an acronym for a special list of additives that contains substances such as spices, natural seasonings, and flavorings that are considered safe for human consumption and not regulated as additives.

GRAS

When you consumer a cracker, the texture that you perceive is the result of several sensations including consistency, mouthfeel, and:

sound

To keep fresh produce from deteriorating during distribution and retail display, produce are often:

treated with a light coat of approved oil-based wax to seal in moisture

The lean part of meat is about _____ percent protein.

15-20

A microorganism that causes a food borne illness is called a:

pathogen

_____ is caused by moisture loss from a ham that is exposed to air during frozen storage, possibly as a result of loose packaging.

Freezer burn

_____ is a required component that must be included on Nutrition Facts panel found on most food products.

Saturated fat

In 1810, an Englishman named _____ patented the tin canister, or can, which became the most popular container for food preservation through canning.

Peter Durand

_____ is the form of carbohydrates found in meat.

Glycogen

Irradiation can be used as a food preservation method called _____. Food is first blanched, and then subjected to high levels of radiation to kill all forms of microorganisms, resulting in a shelf life of several years.

radiation sterilization

The yeast used in making bread products is:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Most starches found in food contain _____ in differing proportions.

amylose and amylopectin

Sodium _____ is an ingredient used to impart a unique flavor and pink color to cured meat products.

nitrite

When glucose and oxygen react with each other, the resulting products are:

carbon dioxide and water

Trans fat is made when _____ is added to vegetable oil in a process called hydrogenation.

hydrogen

When pancakes are cooked on a griddle, the griddle transfers heat to the pancake batter by:

conduction

When a summer sausage is thermally processed in a smokehouse that has excessive air speed and/or too little humidity, the sausage may form a hard outer layer, trapping moisture inside, which could lead to subsequent microbial problems. This is called:

case hardening

In an experiment for a whipped cream company, a scientist tested whipping the cream in a metal or plastic vat to determine which was best for whipping cream. For this experiment, the bowl material would be considered a(n):

independent variable

The first ingredient in the ingredient statement on the can of Mountain Dew soda is listed as "carbonated water." This is actually a solution of the gas _____ dissolved in water.

carbon dioxide

The viscosity of ketchup is a measure of its:

resistance to flow

_____ is formed when the myoglobin in meat becomes oxidized and turns brownish in color.

Metmyoglobin

Cream is classified by the amount of fat it contains. Light whipping cream must contain _____ percent fat.

30-36%

Oscar Mayer markets a product called "Fast Franks" that is a microwavable hot dog in a bun. One serving, equivalent to 1 hot dog with bun, contains 19 grams of fat, 5 grams of saturated fat, 45 mg of cholesterol, 790 mg of sodium, 21 g of carbohydrates, 1 gram of dietary fiber, 5 grams of sugar, and 10 grams of protein. One serving would be equivalent to ___ calories.

295

Quaker® Oats is an example of a company that was permitted by the FDA to place a food-specific health claim on Quaker® Oatmeal because research studies suggested that _____ may lower blood cholesterol slightly.

fiber

Oil and water are two immiscible liquids found in salad dressings that can be blended together with the addition of a(n):

emulsifier

The water content in fruits, vegetables, and meats ranges between _____ percent.

70-90%

A company that makes fresh bratwurst has received complaints from consumers that the sausage looks uncooked in the center of the product even though the consumer has thoroughly cooked it. A scientist has been called in by the company to look at the product and identify why this is occurring. The ability to view and understand the entire production process well enough to identify potential problem areas is called:

trouble shooting

_____ are substances added to baked goods, such as cakes, to help them lighten or rise during baking.

Leavening agents

The creamy texture of Dannon™ yogurt is an example of a food:

attribute

To deactivate enzymes in fruits and vegetables, the produce is immerse in boiling water in a process called:

blanching

The nutrition label found on many food packages is called:

Nutrition Facts

_____ is the protein found in meat that is responsible for color.

myoglobin

Microwaves do not affect all molecules equally. They have the greatest effect on _____ molecules.

water

_____ is an effective antioxidant that is used in many food products to prevent fat from oxidizing and developing off flavors.

BHT

All foods have a pH, which is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH of most foods is in the _____ range of the pH scale.

acid

The carbon dioxide dissolved in a can of soda is a:

solute

_____ are important in the production of foods that contain water and fat, such as mayonnaise or margarine.

Emulsifiers

The FDA has complied a list of over 600 ingredients considered safe and are not designated as additives. This list is called the _____ list.

Generally Recognized as Safe

_____ is a proteolytic enzyme that is used to coagulate milk to make cheese.

Rennin

If a food product contains 10,000,000 (10⁷) microbes per gram, and experiences a 99.99 percent kill rate, then _____ microbes per gram will survive.

1,000

In the body, enzymes break down _____ into simple sugars.

carbohydrates

Microorganisms that grow at refrigeration temperatures are considered to be ______.

psychrotrophs

The length of time cottage cheese can be safely stored refrigerated before deteriorating is known as:

shelf life

The color of maple syrup is the result of a _____ between a monosaccharide and an amino acid normally found in the sap of the maple tree.

Maillard reaction

_____ is a carbohydrate in some fruits that has the ability to form gels.

Pectin

A 42 g serving of M&Ms® contains 9 grams of fat, 30 grams of carbohydrates, and 2 grams of protein. That would be equivalent to ___ calories.

209

_____ is a microorganism that may be found in the body's nasal passages and on the skin. If perishable food contaminated with this organism is allowed to sit at room temperature for an extended period of time, this organism produces a toxin that causes foodborne illness.

Staphylococcus aureus

_____ flourish in environments of high osmotic pressure, or low water activity, and are responsible for spoilage of dry fruits, fruit juices, and maple syrup.

Osmiophilic yeasts

Commercially canned carrots, peas, and corn are processed in a huge pressure canner called a:

retort

_____ is an example of a pure substance.

Table salt

A low acid food is a food that has:

very little acid

_____ is a pathogen that grows under anaerobic conditions and is a concern in canned food products.

Clostridium botulinum

The _____ is the agency responsible for regulating most non-meat food and food products.

FDA

_____ is a process used to prevent browning in fruit and light colored vegetables.

Sulfating

In the research and development laboratory of a food company, a scientist is deciding on the type of sweetener to use in a cereal product. Which sugar should they choose if they want to use the sweetest sugar from the following choices available to them?

fructose

In _____, a German chemist named Andreas Sigismund Marggraf discovered that the sweetness of sugar beets and of sugar cane was the result of sucrose.

1774

During bread production, Saccharromysces cerevisiae causes bread to rise through the process of:

fermentation

To stabilize liquids in some foods, _____ such as citric acid, maltic acid, and tartaric acid, are added to surround metal ions and prevent them from catalyzing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

sequestrants

_____ is a scientific term that is used to describe how food feels in the mouth.

Mouthfeel

If a food product is altered so that it appears to be of a higher quality than it actually is, this is considered to be:

food adulteration

When people work in a food processing establishment, employees are taught to wash their hands and wear appropriate clothing and a hairnet. These steps are part of the company's _____ to produce safe and wholesome food.

good manufacturing practices

Liquid oil is changed into margarine through a process known as:

hydrogenation

A greed radura symbol displayed on a food package label indicated the product has undergone:

irradiation

Milk is supplemented with Vitamin ___ because it is essential to the growth and repair of bones.

D

The process that breaks down fat globules in milk to make them smaller and more uniform in size is called:

homogenization

Meat grading is a:

voluntary procedure conducted by the USDA

Fermentation is a production step in the process of making _____.

chocolate

Scientists at Calgene Company isolated the gene responsible for the deterioration of a tomato when it is picked, then used this knowledge to create the Flavr-Savr® tomato. This is an example of applying _____ to alter the genetic makeup of a food.

biotechnology

The stretchy, elastic protein found in wheat that gives bread its final shape and structure is called:

gluten

The major or main part of a meal is called:

an entrée

The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Bologna is an example of a _____ in food.

biological hazard

_____ is the scale used to relate specific gravity of a beverage such as Diet Coke® to sugar content.

Brix

The study of food production, processing, preparation, evaluation, and use is called:

food science

To prevent oil from separating in a jar of peanut butter, _____ are added to the formulation.

stabilizers

Any microorganism that can cause disease is called a:

pathogen

The use of computers in interactive engineering drawing and storage of designs is known as CAD, or ______.

Computer-Aided Design

Taste buds are sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue. If you were eating salty pretzels, you would perceive the salty taste on the _____ of the tongue.

tip

When steam undergoes a phase change to liquid water, _____ occurs.

condensation

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