Anatomy/Physiology-Muscular System

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Muscular System Review/Study Guide

Elasticity

property of muscle cells that allow them to return to original shape

Troponin

does NOT cause muscle contraction

Sarcolemma

cell membrane which surrounds muscle cells

A.T.P.

energy source for muscle contraction

Tone

property of muscle in which a state of partial contraction is maintained throughout the whole muscle

Myosin

dark bands in muscle fibers are made of thick filaments

Troponin

inhibitor substance that keeps actin and myosin filaments seperate

40-50

muscles make up ____ percent of body weight

Sarcomere

area of a muscle between the 2 adjacent Z lines

Achilles

tendon that attaches the calf muscle to the heel bone.

muscle contractions

neuroelectrical, chemical, & energy source interactions cause _______.

Rotators

type of muscles that rotate an involved limb.

Smooth

Muscle that is found in intestines, blood vessels, and urinary bladder.

Superficial

muscle found directly under the skin.

Smooth

_______ is involuntary, contains one nucleus, not striated, contractions push food in intestines or blood in arteries and veins, and slower contractions than skeletal muscle.

Depressors

muscles that lower body parts

heart

Where is cardiac muscle found?

Cardiac

Muscle that is involuntary, one nucleus, striated,and if one cell is stimulated, all are (contract together).

Pronation

turning the forearm so the palm faces the ground is known as

Fibrillation

is rapid, uncontrolled contraction of individual heart cells; can result in death.

action, shape, origin, location, number of divisions, direction of fibers

Six factors muscles are named after.

Antagonists

muscles that straighten the leg

not striated

One major difference b/n smooth muscle and skeletal muscle is that smooth muscle is ____ ____.

Insertion

movable attachment; where the efforts of contraction are seen.

tendon

Most skeletal muscles do not insert directly to a bone, but they insert through a _____.

Dorsiflexion

muscle action that turns the foot upward.

Aponeurosis

a wide, flat tendon.

Flexors

muscles that bend a limb at a joint.

Urinary bladder

place where smooth muscle would be found in the body

Extensors

straighten a limb at a joint.

Origin

fixed attachment of a muscle.

Abductor

move limbs AWAY from the midline of the body.

Plantar Flexion

muscle movement that brings the foot toward the ground.

Adductor

move limbs TOWARD the midline of the body.

Supination

turning the forearm so the palm faces upward.

Levatars

muscles that raise a body part.

Synergists

muscles that assist prime movers.

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