Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing forward.
Subject standing with an upright posture, feet parallel and close, and palms facing the body.
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below, lower.
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Coronal (frontal) plane
A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions.
Transverse (horizontal) plane (Axial)
A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
1. Right midclavicular plane
2. Left midclavicular plane
3. transpyloric plane
4. transtubercular plane
Right upper quadrant
right lobe of liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestines
left upper quadrant
left lobe of liver, stomach, tail of the pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of large intestines
right lower quadrant
cecum, appendix, portions of small intestine, right ureter, right ovary, right spermatic cord
left lower quadrant
most of small intestine, portions of large intestine, left ureter, left ovary, left spermatic cord.
what is contained in the mediastinum
contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs
What is contained in the abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, blood vessels and peritoneum
Visceral layer of the serous membrane
covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity
What are the Meninges
The 3 membrane layers in the dorsal body cavity that protect the delicate nervous tissue from the hard protective bone that encloses it.
List the facial bones
zygoma/malor bone (2)
Inferior nasal conchae (2)
anterior cranial fossa
frontal bone, ethmoid bone, and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. contains the frontal loves of the brain, olfactory bulbs.
middle cranial fossa
temproal bones & sphenoid bone. contains the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, temporal lobes of the brain, and internal carotid artery
posterior cranial fossa
occipital and temporal bone. contains the cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain (brainstem).
1. Internal table
3. Exernal table
4. Ethmoid notch of frontal bone
5. Orbital plate of frontal bone
6. Crista galli
7. Cribiform plate
8. Sella turcica
9 Foramen rotundum
10. Foramen ovale
11. Foramen lacerum
12. Foramen spinosum
13. Internal auditory canal
14. Mastoid foramen
15. Hypoglossal canal
16. internal occipital protuberance
17. foramen magnum
18. Occipital bone
19. jugular foramen
20. temporal bone
21. end of carotid canal
22. sphenoid bone
23. lesser wing of sphenoid bone
24. ethmoid bone
25. frontal bone
Label the Cranial fossae
vertical portion of the frontal bone
forms the forehead and the anterior vault of the cranium. The frontal sinus communicates with the nasal cavity
What is the Foramen Magnum
A large oval aperture in the Occipital Bone which allows the brainstem to continue as the spinal cord.
The Sphenoid Bone
Articulates with all the other bones of the cranium, also several facial bones. forms the posterior side of the orbit. It is the anchor for all of the bones in the skull.
The Ethmoid Bone
smallest of the cranial bones. Cribriform plate (horizontal portion). contains many foramina for the passage of olfactory neves, forms the roof of the nasal cavity. The perpendicular plate (vertical portion) projects inferiorly to form the superior 2/3 of the nasal septum.
The triangular process that projects superiorly from the horizontal portion of the cribriform plate of the occipital bone to act as an attachment for the FALX CEREBRI.
1. Parietal eminence
3. Sagittal Suture
4. Lambdoidal Suture
5. Occipital bone
6. Temporal Bone
7. Frontal bone
8. Coronal suture
9. Squamous suture
boundaries formed by the squamous suture
on each side of the skull, squamous portion of temporal bones to the parietal bones
name the 6 fontanels
1. Anterior (Bregma)
2. Posterior (Lambda)
3&4 2 Anterolateral (sphenoid)
5 & 6 2 Posterolateral (mastoid)
Name the facial bones
a. 2 Nasal bones-form the bridge of nose
b. 2 Lacrimal bones-Medial wall of each orbit. Lacrimal groove
c. Maxillary bones-fuse at midline, largest immovable facial bones.
d. 2 Palatine bones-L shaped bone, forms part of the hard palate, nasal cavity, and medial wall of orbit.
e. 2 Zygoma (malar) bones- cheeks and lateral part of orbit.
f. 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae-Similar to the superior & middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone but are separate bones.
g. Vomer-forms the bony nasal septum (inferior) together with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone.
h. Mandible-Largest facial bone
The Hyoid bone
Inferior to mandible
Does not articulate directly with any other bone
Crucial for human speech. Connected to the styloid process of the temporal bone by the stylohyoid ligaments.
Name the 5 layers of the scalp
2. Connective tissue
4. Loose connective tissue
1. skin of scalp
3. bone of skull
6. arachnoid mater
7. Pia mater
8. Arachnoid villus
9. blood vessel
10. Falx cerebri
11. Superior sagittal sinus
12. subdural space
13. superior sagittal sinus
Coronal cross section of meninges and subarachnoid space.
Outermost, strongest membrane of the meninges. double layered (Periosteal layer & meningeal layer), Dural Venous Sinuses (Veins that drain the head)
contains the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer and the dural venous sinuses (veins that drain the head) run between these two.
middle layer of the meninges. delicate, transparent membrane composed of a web of collagen and elastic fibers (Arachnoid Trabeculae) which pass from the arachnoid through the subarachnoid space to blend with the tissue of the pia mater. Subarachnoid Space contains CSF.
The inner layer of the meninges. Thin, highly vascular layer that adheres to the brain and follows every contour of the brain surface. Epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space.
1. body of right lateral ventricle
2. frontal horn of left lateral ventricle
3. temporal horn of left lateral ventricle
4. lateral aperture (foramen of Luschka)
5. Central canal
6. Fourth ventricle
7. Cerebral aqueduct (Aqueduct of Sylvius)
8. Third ventricle
9. Interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
Anterior view of ventricles
Sickle-like form, in midsagittal plane, projects into the longitudinal fissure separating the Rt & Lt lobes of the cerebrum
Separates the occipital and temporal lobes from the cerebellum, projects into transverse fissure. between cerebrum and cerebellum.
What is the Ventricular System
-cavities located in the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
-continuous with one another as well as the central canal of the spinal cord
-contains CSF which bathes the CNS
-CSF is produced by the choroid plexus in each ventricle
What is the Choroid Plexus
-Cluster of capillaries that lines certain parts of all the ventricles
-Manufactures CSF by filtration and secretion
-highest concentration is in the collateral trigone of lateral ventricles.
1. Frontal horn of lateral ventricle
2. interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro)
3. Massa Intermedia (Interthalmic adhesion)
4. Trigone (Atria)
5. Occipital horn of lateral ventricle
6. Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius)
7. Lateral Aperture (Foramen of Luschka)
8. Central Canal
9. Fourth ventricle
10. Temporal horn of lateral ventricle
11. third ventricle
12. Lamina terminalis
13. Median aperture (foramen of Magendie)
Lateral view of ventricular system
1. Frontal bone
2. coronal suture
3. Parietal bone (2)
4. Sphenoidal bone
5. Temporal bone (2)
6. Ethmoidal bone
7. Inferior Nasal Concha (2)
10. Maxilla (2)
11. Zygomatic (malar) bone (2)
12. Lacrimal bone (2)
13. Nasal bone (2)
1. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
2. Posterolateral (Mastoid) fontanel (2)
3. Frontal (Metopic) suture
4. Anterior (Bregma) Fontanel
5. Posterior (Lambda) fontanel
6. Anterolateral (Sphenoid) fontanel (2)
The Arachnoid Villi
Located within dural sinus. project into the dural Venous Sinuses and drain excess CSF. enlargements are called granulations.
What is the function of CSF
Cushioning of CNS
Buoyancy, support of brain, brain suspended in CSF
Transport of nutrients, chemical messengers and removal of waste products.
Foramen of Monro (interventricular foramen)
cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius)
lateral apertures (foramen of magendie)
central canal of spinal cord
what are cisterns
pooling areas for subarachnoid space. Basal Cisterns. Named after the brain structure they border.
suprasellar (chiasmatic) cistern
LARGEST PORTION OF THE BRAIN.
2 HALVES-Rt & Lt hemispheres, separated by a deep longitudinal fissure along midsagittal plane. (Christa Galli of the ethmoid bone)
surface neural tissue folds into elevated ridges called gyri which are separated by shallow depressions called sulci
cerebral cortex-outermost portion consists of gray matter
white matter lies deep to the cortex, within the masses of white matter, there are discrete internal clusters of gray matter called basal nuclei aka cerebral nuclei
white matter bundles contain fibers that create pathways for transmission of nerve impulses
the largest and densest bundle of white matter fibers
connects the two cerebral hemispheres and provides the main method of communication between them
forms the roof of the lateral ventricles
Rostrum, genu, body and splenium
Anterior commisure connects the anterior portions of each temporal lobe
Posterior commisure transmits the nerve impulses for pupillary light reflexes
crosses midline to third ventricle
provides the main method of communication bw the two hemispheres.