Psychology Ch. 3/4 practice quiz

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Loudness is determined by sound

Amplitude

Perceptual constancy reflects the understanding of the perceiver that

objects remain the same despite changes in their appearance.

The capacity of a placebo treatment to reduce pain perception is due to

release of endorphins in brain.

The cochlea is where

airwaves are converted to fluid waves.

Signal detection theory suggests that differences in absolute thresholds between different people reflect

human judgement

The eye is uniquely able to extract able to extract information about the world from

light waves.

Rods are photoreceptors that allow us to perceive,

the stars at night.

Different senses give us different sensations mainly because

they activate different sensory regions of the brain.

"The whole is more than the sum of its parts" is a statement reflecting

Gestalt psychology.

Nerve impulses that carry information travel along___ to specialized processing areas in the

sensory pathways.

The perception of ___ is related to the intensity of light.

brightness.

The hammer, anvil, and stirrup transmit sound waves from the __ to the ___.

outer ear, cochlea.

Examine this pattern: XXX XXX XXX XXX. You are likely to perceive this as four groups of three X's rather than six pairs of X's. This is due to the

law of proximity.

____ refers to the loss of responsiveness in receptor cells due to constant stimulation.

Sensory of adaptation.

Which of the following was NOT an adaptation that Jonathan I, was able to make following his unique visual loss?

He used more vivid colors in his paintings.

Visible light is described in terms of its

energy level and wavelength.

Which sense makes use of electromagnetic energy?

Vision.

Humans can typically discriminate amongst how many different hues?

5 million.

Hermann von Helmholtz was a proponent of which perceptual theory?

Learning-based inference.

A person who cannot distinguish pale colors such as pink and tan would be said to have

a color weakness.

The ___ of sound allows us to distinguish a guitar note from a saxophone note.

timbre.

The frequency theory best explains___ sounds, while the place theory explains___ sounds.

low pitched; high-pitched.

Learning-based inference is to nurture as __is to nurture.

Gestalt theory.

Our sensory receptors play a key role in detecting__ in the external world

Changes.

Which of the following is NOT one of the five taste qualities.

creamy.

____involve a particular stimulus in a given context.

Perceptual sets.

The sensory pathways carry information

from the sense organs to the brain.

Intense pain stimulation generates signals that are carried by

slow fibers.

Which of the following can produce a loss of taste reactivity?

Reduced density of papillae on the tongue, smoking, overconsumption of hot spicy foods, aging. (all of the above)

A(n)___ us defined as a discrepancy between our perception and external reality.

Percept.

The sense of taste is known as

gustation.

Your dog has been lost for three days. When you hear a bark, you assume that it is Fido because of

top-down processing.

The Skinner box was designed so that

animals could press a lever to receive food.

Organisms seem to learn the spatial layout of their environment by____, even if they are not reinforced for learning particular paths.

Exploration.

The most effective form of punishment usually involves

penalties,such as loss of privileges.

Imagine that you have an intense fear of flying and that you are enrolled in a counterconditioning therapy program to help you lose this fear. Which of the following situations would GREATLY interfere with the success of this therapy for fear of flying?

Your plane develops engine trouble while you are on a short 20 minute practice flight.

If a child cries to obtain a new toy, the crying acts as a

negative reinforcer.

Robert's dog, Little Gut, runs to Robert when he says, "Come" If one day, Little Gut comes running when Robert says, "Dumb" we might say Little Gut has demonstrated

stimulus generalization.

Negative reinforcement works best when the aversive stimulus

is imposed by natural or impersonal conditions.

According to Skinner, when you take an aspiring for your headache, take the aspirin is__ whereas the headache is ___

an operant; a negative reinforcer.

While walking down a dark alley, you jump at a loud noise. This would not be considered learning because

jumping is merely a reflex.

You are walking by a c ash machine when you notice that the person at the machine starts jumping up and down because the machine gave them too much cash. You wait in line and insert your card and ask for the same amount of money as the person before you. Your behavior reflects.

social learning.

A Vietnam war veteran who hears a " call to battle stations" alarm sound last heard in heavy combat would be expected to

show strong emotional arousal.

The initial learning state in classical conditioning in which the neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus is known as

acquistion.

A punisher is an aversive consequence that

weakens the behavior it follows .

The acquisition of classical conditioning, the ___ now has the ability to elicit a response the resembles the UCR.

conditioned stimulus.

Punishment must be administered___ in order to be effective.

immediately and consistently

Which of the following would NOT be an example of learning?

A new born infant sucks on a nipple filled with milk, A rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.

The receptors for body position and movement are located

in the inner ear.

The wavelength of light causes___while the intensity of light cause sensation of___

color, brightness

The Gestalt process of ___ distinguishes patterns from their backdrops.

Figure-ground.

The sky appears to be blue because it reflects ___ wavelength of lights.

Short.

A(n)___ refers to the smallest change in physical energy between two stimuli that is recognized as different.

a different threshold.

Through the process of ___ we are able to interpret incoming sensory patterns.

perception.

An overweight person who wants to appear thinner would be advised to

wear dark clothing.

The concept of___ explains why a shirt looks the same shade of orange when it looks darker in dim light or brighter while outside on a sunny day.

color constancy.

While studying ___, ___ discovered___ conditioning.

digestion; Pavlov; classical.

To avoid conditioned taste aversions, cancer patients are now given___ during chemotherapy.

unusually flavored candies or ice cream.

The best strategy to teach an organisms a new response to use

continuous reinforcement.

The similarity of positive reinforcement and positive punishment is that each involves

adding a stimulus.

The process of__ is responsible for the conversion of physical energy to neural impulses

transduction.

In bottom-up processing, the resulting percept is determined by

stimulus features.

The fact that you may salivate to the smell of a hamburger, but do not salivate at the sound of the doorbell is an example of

discrimination learning.

The fact that you perceive your psychology professor as being the same size when viewed from different parts of the classroom is known as

perceptual constancy.

Reinforcement on an interval schedule is always based on

the amount of time that has passed.

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