# Basic Physics

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Basic physics needed to know in the aeronautics field. Terms relating to gas laws and etc.

### The 3 States of Matter

Solid, Liquid, Gaseous

H2O

### Solids under pressure

Little heat energy, molecules are close together, and incompressible

### Liquids under pressure

Molecules are farther apart, still incompressible, no definite shape

### Gas under pressure

Molecules are loosened, compressible, no definite shape

### The 8 characteristics of matter

Weight, mass, attraction, porosity, impenetrability, density, volume, and specific gravity

### Density

Mass of a substance per unit of its volume

### Specific gravity

The ratio between the weight of a given volume of a material to the same volume of pure water

### Temperature

Level of agitation

### Heat

Form of energy/Energy that is associated with the motion of molecules within a material

### 3 ways pressure is measured

Gauge pressure (psig), Absolute pressure (psia), Differential pressure (psid)

### Kinetic theory of gases

Molecules spread apart are always in constant motion due to agitation caused by heat

### Boyle's Law

Changing volume of a confined gas held at a constant temperature is direct to gas pressure changing or if the temperature of a gas is held constant, the volume is decrease, the pressure will increase.

### Charles Law

The volume of a gas held constant, but the pressure increases and decreases in direct proportion to the change in absolute temperature

### Pascal's Law

Pressure applied to a confined liquid, that liquids then exerts an equal amount of pressure in right angles to the container that encloses it

### Standard Day/ISA

Standard atmosphere defined at sea level with pressure, temperature and density

### 3 classes of lever

First-class lever, second-class lever, and third-class lever

### Work

Force applied to an object causes the object to move (W=FxD or Work = Force x Distance)

### Power

Amount of work done in time (P=FxD/T or Power = Force x Distance/Time)

### Energy

Capacity of an object to perform work

### 2 Types of energy

Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy

Energy in motion

Energy at rest

### Momentum

Force of an object in motion, and the tendency of a body to continue in motion after being placed in motion

### Heat measurement

BTU or British Thermal Unit (1BTU = 778 ft-lbs), or Metric System is Calories = 0.42 meter-kilogram or 3.09 ft-lbs of work

### Conduction

Physical contact between a body having a high level of heat and a body having a lower level of heat

### Convection

Heat is transferred by movement

Requires no matter to form energy transfer

### Sound

Vibration of/between bodies

### What affects the speed of sound?

The density and elasticity of the medium and the temperature

### Sound Reflection

When a longitudinal sound wave strikes a flat surface, sound is then reflected in a consistent manner if the dimension of the reflective surface is large compared to the wavelength of the sound

### Sympathetic Sound

One solid body starts to vibrate due to sound being produced transfers its wave energy to the other causing it to vibrate as well

Example: