History of Mexico
|Pre-Conquest (name the 5 major civilizations)||"The Olmec, the Teotihuacan, the Toltec, the Aztec and the Maya.|
| "•Grouped together large numbers of village communities|
•Most complex societies in pre-Columbian North America (certain existing some 2,000 years before the conquest)
•The main zones (altiplano or Mexico City, Veracruz-Tabasco and the Yucatan)
Organization of State Empires
| "•Class-based society|
•The ruling class (military, political and religious leaders) financed itself by collecting 'tribute' payments from communities that it dominated (paid in money, kind or work).
•Tributes not immediately consumed were invested in infrastructure (roads and aqueducts)
| •Peasants lived in self-sufficient households; surplus production we destined for tributes|
•Merchant class emerges; also small slave class"
| "•Largest and most developed of the state societies|
•It encompassed a territory the size of Italy; its capital Tenochtitlan (where Mexico City lies today) had a population of between 250,000-500,000) (1500s)
•Religious beliefs: they lived within a divine cosmological order that they were powerless to change (extreme fatalism).
|Theirs was the empire of the Fifth Sun; the four previous empires had ended in calamity - they believed that theirs would also end in apocalypse"||Location and History of Aztecs,"Location of the Aztecs: The South Central region of present-day Mexico was once the home of the Aztec. They lived in the highlands of Mesoamerica in an area of basins separated by eroded volcanic peaks and dissected mountain ranges.|
History of the Aztecs: The Aztecs came from the remote north, probably around the early 13th century. They were migratory at first, wandering around the Mexican Valley struggling to survive. They were even enslaved once by another tribe.
In the year 1325, however, they stopped their migratory pattern on the southwest border of Lake Texcoco as they beheld an eagle sitting on the stem of a prickly pear.
He was holding a serpent in this talons and his wings were open to the sun. They saw this as an omen, announcing the location of their future city and capital, Tenochtitlan. In order to build their city, the swamps and standing water around them had to be drained and artificial islands were constructed to form gardens.
How did Cortez conquer the Aztecs?
| "Divisions within indigenous peoples: Cortez exploited the fact that other empires had been conquered by the Aztecs (allies: Tlaxcaltecs)|
3)Aztec worldview (they believed that the Spanish conquistadores were gods of a divinely ordered destruction of their world)
Mexican national identity?
|"•Cortez had indigenous allies; so the Conquest was not necessarily a battle between the Spanish and Native peoples, but between the Aztecs against the Spaniards aided by the enemies of the Aztecs|
Spanish Colonial Society 1521-1821
| "•Indigenous outnumbered Spanish 20 to 1|
•300-year period of forced labour of native peoples and aggressive christianization.
•Spanish absorbed many of these indigenous state institutions into their own semi-feudal society: p.ex. tribute payments then made to Spanish authorities
Spanish Colonial society
| "•Many Indians stayed on the periphery of colonial society - subsistence farming|
Thus the labour force was dualist: labour concentrated in haciendas (plantations), mining and also subsistence-level villages and farms
| "•Proclaimed in 1821|
•Mexico inherits: large haciendas, communal landholdings, a church that drained economic resources, difficulty of settling the North
•Conflict with Northern indigenous tribes (Apaches, Comanches)
Settling of Texas
|"•Mexican government, in an effort to populate some of its sparsely-settled northern land claims, awards extensive land grants to thousands of immigrant families from the United States|
•One condition: the settlers convert to Catholicism and assume Mexican citizenship.
•It also forbade the importation of slaves, a condition that, like the others, was largely ignored.
Mexican American War (1846-48)
|"•Armed military conflict in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas. Mexico did not recognize the secession of Texas in 1836; it considered Texas a rebel province.|
•In the United States: -- popular belief in Manifest Destiny supported the war.
•In Mexico, the war was considered a matter of national pride.
what was the disputed territory in the Mexican American War?
|Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848)|| "Consequence of the war for the United States:|
•Mexican Cession, in which the Mexican territories of Alta California and Santa Fé de Nuevo México were ceded to the United States under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
•Mexico loses land rich in resources (copper - agriculture).
Mexican Revolution (1910-1921)
|"•The Mexican Revolution was a social and cultural movement.|
•The revolution started as a rebellion against the Mexican President Porfirio Díaz.
•His regime: accepted the involvement of the United States in Mexican life but also centered on expanding the Mexican economy; gave large tracts of land to foreign investors.
Who were important members of the Mexican Revolution?
|"•Francisco Madero, Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Pascual Orozco, and Venustiano Carranza were all important figures in the revolution.|