Miguel de Cervantes
A writer who wrote Don Quixote, a book about a crazy Spanish knight
the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. The daughter of Henry VIII, and died childless.
Became King of England after Elizabeth I died; believed in divine right
was a French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer: "I think therefore I am"
He was a court painter for Philip IV he painted the pride of Spanish monastery
Rembrandt van Rijn
The greatest artist of the Netherlands in 1600's who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants
Jean Baptiste Colbert
King Louis XIV's minster of finances who believed in mercantilism
French playwright and actor, considered one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.
Was crowned king after James I and always wanted money from Parliament (until they rebelled and killed him)
was a Dutch Baroque painter who specialized in exquisite, domestic interior scenes of middle class life.
He was ruler of the Spain from 1519. The holy roman emperor.
Ivan the Terrible
Russia's first tsar; was a good ruler until his wife died; executed thousands of people afterward
Michel de Montaigne
A French writer who invented the essay
Spanish painter, regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism
Inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies from Charles V
A minister of King XIII, became the real ruler of France
the Spanish fleet that sailed against England with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I. They lost.
The first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France.
Edict of Nantes
A declaration of religious tolerance between the Huguenots and Catholics in France
Reigned as King of France and Navarre from 1610 to 1643; Cardinal Richelieu was really in charge at first
30 Years War
European conflict over religion and territory and for power among ruling families
He returned as King after Oliver Cromwell died and the people of England were tired of Puritan rule
The Sun King. He had the longest documented reign of any European monarch; said, "I am the state"; fought several disastrous wars
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
The general of the Protestant army who after victory became the military dictator of England
it happened when the monarchy returned to England and Charles II became king.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar; Absolute monarch whose chief goal was to westernize Russia; built the first Russian Navy
also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrowing of King James II of England
War of Spanish Succession
the French and Spanish fought against England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and many others
Charles VI's eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburg territories; became empress of Austria
Prussian ruler that ruled as an absolute monarch; believed as king he was the "first servant of the state"; abolished torture except for treason and murder; established elementary schools and promoted industry and agriculture