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paleolithic age

prehistoic times/age

neolithic age

created gods and goddesses to represent forces of nature during this time

cro-magnon

skilled tool-makers who became great artists

neanderthals

prehistoric people who were good hunters and first to bury their dead

Nile

Egyptians built their civilization along this river

Upper Egypt

located in southern Egypt

Lower Egypt

included the Nile delta

Narmer

Egyptian who united lower and upper egypt

Old Kingdom

also known as "Age of Pyramids"

Memphis

capital of Egypt during Old Kingdom

Re

Sun God

Osiris

god of harvest and everlasting life

Isis

goddess of fertility

Book of the Dead

Egyptian book with correct magic spells

Middle Kingdom

period when pharoahs shared power with priests and government officials

Hyksos

conquered Egypt by using iron weapons

Ahmose

Egyptian hero who defeated Hyksos

New Kingdom

period when Egypt became an empire

Thutmose

pharoah who conquered Syria and Palenstine

Hatsheput

pharoah who increased trade

Thebes

capital of Egypt during New Kingdom

Amon-Re

worshipped in New Kingdom; very powerful; built temples in his honor

Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaton

pharoah who tried to change religion

Indus

place where civilization developed in South Asia

Huang Ho

place where civilization developed in China

Harrappa/Mohenjo-daro

twin capitals of Harrapan civilization in a grid

Great Bath

in Mohenjo-Daro -house where they practiced their village and had meetings

Aryans

took over Indus River Valley in 1200 B.C.

Yu the Great

man-God who drove out serpents and dragons along Huang-Ho

Xia

kingdom created by Yu

Shang

ruling family with first record of civilization

Zhou

conquerers of the Shang

Canaan

land where Phoenicians and Hebrews lived

Canaanites

herders and wanderers

Philistines

traders and shipbuilders

Phoenicia

seafaring civlization located on eastern shore of Mediterrannean

Tyre, Byblos, Beirut, Sidon

largest Phoenician city-states

Baal

chief god of the Canaanites

carthage

most important phoenician ncolony

judaism

Hebrew religion that still exists today

Abraham

founding patriarch of Hebrews

Yahweh

name of Hebrew God

Moses

exodus leader of Hebrews

10 commandments

told Hebrewsthey had to worship Yahweh/ presented by Moses

joshua

general who brought Hebrews to Promised Land

saul

first hebrew king

david

hebrew king, poet, musician and warrior

israel

kingdom set up in North when solomon died

jerusalem

capital city of Hebrews

solomon

hebrew king who built the temple/led at height of hebrew power

judah

southern king of hebrews

sparta/athens

two greatest Greek city-states

council of elders

citizens over 20 who suggested laws and were judges

cleisthenes

leader who made athens a democracy and wrote democratic constitution

council of 500

chosen from a big pot to handle daily business of athens

persian wars

ended with athens as leading polis

ionia

area of asia minor settled by greeks

darius

leader who led attack on Greece

marathon

1st battle between Greeks and Persians

xerxes

persian king who won at Thermopylae

thermopylae

battle won by persians in mountain pass

salamis

1st naval battle in history

delos

headquarters of delian league

pericles

athenian leader who built parthenon and took delian league money

parthenon

massive temple built to honor athena

peloponnesian war

conflict between sparta and athens

olympic games

ancient competitions to honor zeus

herodotus

"father of history"

aeschylus

created/wrote first play

sophocles

famous tragedy writer who said sufferring makes you stronger

euripides

tragedy writer who said sufferring is punishment

aristophanes

greek writer of comedies

socrates

believed in the search for truth through questioning

plato

socrates student who found first school and wrote of "ideal" state in The Republic

aristotle

philosopher who created classifications

euclid

father of geometry

hippocrates

"Father of scientific method"/ made list of rules for doctors behavior

minoans

created the earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.

mycenaeans

civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.

crete

the largest Greek island in the Mediterranean

knossos

the minoan capital city

Mother earth

most important goddess of minoans

theseus and minotaur

legendary hero who killed monster in crete

homer

poet who told of greek and trojan heroes

illiad

tells story of war between myceneans and trojans

odyssey

homers poem about journey after trojan war

troy

where trojan war took place

dorians

people who conquered myceneans

dark ages

when progress of civilization stopped

assyria

well organized army in large area of middle east

hittites

created smelting to make weapons and taught assyrians

ashurbanipal

assyrian king who started forst library

ashur

an ancient Assyrian city on the Tigris and traditional capital of Assyria

nineveh

capital city of assyria

chaldeans

captured assyrian capital in 612 b.c.

2nd babylonian empire

the chaldean culture

nebuchadnezzar

most famous leader of chaldeans

hanging gardens

famous in babylon along with huge ziggaraut

marduk

chief god of babylon

ishtar

goddess of love and fertility and war

aramaic

language spoken by traveling merchants

persia

an ancient empire in southwest Asia and was one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world

medes

people who conquered persia in 600 b.c.

king cyrus

king of persia who overthrew medes

immortals

best fighters in persian army

persepolis

capital city of persia

eys and ears of the king

inspectors who traveled throughout persian empire

zoroaster

formed new religion with forces of good and evil at war

ahura mazda

zoroasterian god of good and light

ahriman

zoroastrian god of darkness and evil

royal road

1600 mile road built by persians for trade

lydia

first area to use coins

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