Art History 1 | Study Guide 3

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91 terms · Art History test 3 terms and definitions

polis

Greek word for city-state

deme

political subdivision of the polis (territorial unit like a precinct or ward)

Titans

The Elder Gods; children of the heaven and earth

sanctuaries

places of worship

Hellenistic

relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization

cella or naos

a central room often surrounded by a row of columns with a porch in front

pronaos

the space, or porch, in front of the cella, or naos, of an ancient Greek temple

peristyle

a colonnade surrounding a building or enclosing a court

peripteral temple

a temple having columns on all sides

dipteral temple

a temple surrounded by double rows of columns

entasis

a swelling in the middle of the shafts on a column

adyton

innermost sanctuary of a building housing the place where, in a temple with an oracle, the orcale's message was delivered

fillets

A curved surface formed at the interior intersection of two or more surfaces of an object.

caryatids

a sculpture of a draped female figure acting as a column supporting an entablature

frieze

an architectural ornament consisting of a horizontal sculptured band between the architrave and the cornice

pediment

a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof

symmetria

Greek, "commensurability of parts." Polykleitos's treatise on his canon of proportions incorporated the principle of symmetria.

rhythmos

rhythm

contrapposto

put all weight on one leg, causes hips to shift and shoulders to counter balance, which sets up potential for natural pose

agora

the marketplace in ancient Greece

meander

to move or cause to move in a sinuous, spiral, or circular course

concrete

a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water

groin vault

formed at the point at which 2 barrel vaults intersect at right angles

exedrae

a semicircular bay or niche

tablinum

study

insula

apartment building

verism

true to natural appearance

techne

art, skill

dado

a rectangular groove cut into a board so that another piece can fit into it

frieze

ornamental horizontal band on a wall

pilasters

., flat rectangular columns attached to a wall

Pompeian red

Evenly spaced columns subdivide the running narrative into scenes.

composite order

a Roman order that combines the Corinthian acanthus leaves with the spiral scrolls of the Ionic order

herm statue

a bust on a quadrangular pillar

tondo

a circular painting or relief sculpture

basilica

a huge marble government building in ancient Rome

rotunda

a building having a circular plan and a dome

Phoenicians

located on eastern Mediterranean coast; invented the alphabet which used sounds rather than symbols like cuneiform

Solon

Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt

Peisistratos

Nestor's son who accompanies Telemachus to Sparta.

Cleisthenes

An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped from Athenian democracy

Perikles

Leader in Athens during its Golden Age, patron of the arts encouraging public images of peace, prosperity, and power. Convinced the people to rebuild the Acropolis to honor Athena.

Julius Caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

Augustus

Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC

Vespasian

Emperor of Rome and founder of the Flavian dynasty who consolidated Roman rule in Germany and Britain and reformed the army and brought prosperity to the empire

Sky Gods

Children of Earth and Sky

Zeus (Jupiter)

god of gods

Hera (Juno)

goddess of women and marriage

Hestia

goddess of the hearth and its fire

Poseidon

god of the sea and earthquakes

Hades

god of the underworld

Ares (Mars)

god of war

Hephaistos

god of fire and metal-working

Aphrodite

goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus

Artemis (Diana)

goddess of the hunt and the moon

Apollo (Phoebus)

god of the sun, art, music

Hermes (Mercury)

messenger and herald of the gods

Athena (Minerva)

goddess of wisdom and war

Demeter (Ceres)

goddess of grain and agriculture

Persephone (Proserpina)

goddess of the underworld

Dionysos (Bacchus)

god of wine and ecstasy

Eros (Cupid)

god of love

Eos (Aurora)

goddess of the dawn

Ge

goddess of the earth

Asclepius (Aesculapius)

god of medicine

Amphitrite

goddess of the sea

Pan

god of fields, woods, shepherds, and flocks

Nike

winged goddess of victory

The Sanctuary of Hera and Zeus near Olympia

site dedicated to the worship of Zeus, in whose honour Pan-Hellenic Games were held every four years from 776 BCE to 393 CE.

The Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi

an oracle Pythian Games

Pompeii

Roman city near Naples, Italy, which was buried during an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. 79.

Herculaneum

an ancient Roman city that was destroyed by a volcano

Boscoreale

a comune and town in the province of Naples, Campania, located in the Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio under the slopes of Mount Vesuvius, known for the fruit and vineyards of Lacryma Christi del Vesuvio.

cult of Dionysus

cult based on Dionysus, had many rituals involving orgies and drinking, later transitioned to a more civilized cult

Tarquins

Ruling Etruscan family of Rome, Very cruel, enslaved people to make their lives comfortable

Punic Wars

a series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance in the western Mediterranean

Pottery shapes:

amphora
pelike and stamnos
krater
oinochoe
hydria
kylix
kantharos
skyphos
lekythos
aryballos
olpe

The three main types of Greek painted vase decoration are called:

black-figure
red-figure
white-ground

Slips

mixture of clay and water

Gloss

metallic pigments mixed with slip

tempera

a paint made from egg yolks, water and pigments

"Wild goat style"

modern term describing vase painting produced in the east of Greece, namely the southern and eastern Ionian islands, between circa 650 to 550 BCE.

cella or naos

a central room often surrounded by a row of columns with a porch in front

"in antis"

term used to describe the position of columns set between two walls as in a portico or cella

prostyle

columns are only in front of the cella and not on the sides or back

amphiprostyle

columns are placed across both the front and back but not the sides

peripteral

peristyle row of columns all around the building

dipteral

double rows of columns around the cell

patricians

powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society

plebeians

farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population

The "Good Emperors"

Nerva (ruled 96-98 AD)
Trajan (ruled 98-117 AD)
Hadrian (ruled 117-138 AD)
Antoninus Pius (ruled 138-161 AD)
Marcus Aurelius (ruled 161-180 AD)

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