Bio Study Guide 2

47 terms by mnolan14 

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Name of the monomer or polymer of a carbohydrate

monosaccharide and polysaccharide

WHAT IS THE SUFFIX ASSIGNED TO MANY SUGARS

-ose

What is the function of carbohydrates?

Fuel for Cellular work

WHAT is a word used to describe glucose and fructose

Isomers

NAME ONE MONOSACCHARIDE, ONE DISACCHARIDE AND ONE POLYSACCHARIDE

MONOSACCHARIDE: GLUCOSE

DISSACCHARIDE: SUCROSE

POLYSACCHARIDE: STARCH

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino Acids

Besides for the order in which amino acids are arranged, what else is necessary for a Protein to function in a specific way?

Protein Shape

What is the name given to the bonds that link amino acids together? What type of bond are they?

Peptide bond.
Covalent.

Name the 4 different parts that make up an amino acid

Amino Group, Carboxyl group, R group

Explain Prion disease

A disease caused by misshapen proteins in the brain

What is the monomer of a nucleic acid?
And what are it's components?

Nucleotides
sugar
Phosphate
base

What is the function of a nucleic acid?

Stores genetic information

What are the 5 different bases? And which bases pair with which other bases?

Adenine
Thymine
Uracil
Cytosine
Guanine

Name the elements that are present in nucleic acids

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
phosphorus

Describe the types and location of the different bonds in molecules of RNA and DNA

Sugar-phosphate backbone: Covalent
(phosphodiester btw)

Base pairing: hydrogen

What are the three main types of lipids

1)Fats
2)Phopholipids
3)steroids

How are lipids different from the other molecules we've studied?

Not considered macromolecules
-not made up of repeating monomers

Describe the components of a fat

Glycerol + Fatty acid

What type of atoms do you find in lipids

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Nitrogen

What makes phospholipids arrange the way they do in a double membrane?

it was a picture so feel free to look at it

Describe Polarity and why water has this property

another pic

How many hydrogen bonds can water form?

4

Why is it important for life on Earth that floats on top of water.
Why does water do this anyways?

As water freezes each molecule forms stable hydrogen bonds with it's neighbors

Holds neighbors at "arms length"

Creates structure that is less compact than if it was in water form (LESS DENSE)

Explain Transpiration, cohesion and Adhesion

Cohesion- Tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together

Adhesion-Clinging of one substance to another

Transpiration-evaporation on surface of leaves causes water to be pulled up the trunk

List 4 unique properties of water due to it's polarity

Surface Tension
Cohesion
adhesion
Universal Solvent

Name the four types of molecules we studied

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic acids
Lipids

How many bonds does Carbon Form and why?

4 because it has 4 Valence electrons

What reaction makes a monomer into a polymer
What is the byproduct?

Dehydration Reaction
Water

What reaction breaks a polymer into monomers?
What do you have to add to the reaction?

Hydrolysis

Add water

What are the differences between Starch, glycogen and cellulose?

Starch- storage polysaccharide in plants (potatoes, wheat, rice, corn)
Glycogen- Animals store glycogen in liver and muscle cells
Cellulose- cell walls in plants

Describe 2 different proteins we discussed in class

this one didnt have an answer slide with it

How are ionic bonds formed?

In ionic bonds, one atom gives up an electron to a second atom.

Which of the following bonds are arranged from strongest to weakest in a biological system?

covalent, ionic, hydrogen

When hot, many mammals sweat to control their body temperature. Evaporation plays an important role, but the direct effect is due to _____.

the absorption of heat by the breaking of hydrogen bonds

What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?

glucose

The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.

none of them dissolves in water

Proteins are an important class of molecules because of the functions they perform. Proteins can _____.

act as signal receptors to receive signals in cell communication

Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein

amino and carboxyl groups ... R group

The primary structure of a protein is like the arrangement of beads on a string. In this analogy, the beads are _____, of which there are _____ different kinds.

amino acids ... 20

A protein's alpha helices and beta sheets fold together to create an overall shape at the _____ level of protein structure.

third

What happens to the shape and function of a protein if one of the amino acids is replaced with a different type of amino acid?

It depends on the role of the amino acid that is altered. One amino acid might be replaced with no measurable effect on the protein's function; replacing another might cause a total loss of function.

Large proteins, like DNA polymerase and hemoglobin, are often composed of several polypeptides that are linked together. The _____ level of protein structure describes how the polypeptides are joined to create a larger complex.

fourth

The reaction that joins two monomers to form a polymer is known as a _____ reaction. The molecule of water formed is due to the interaction between _____ and a hydrogen ion.

dehydration ... a hydroxyl group

A polysaccharide called starch consists entirely of glucose molecules. During early stages of starch digestion, starch would be broken down into _____.

maltose

What do phospholipids and cholesterol have in common?

Both are important components of cell membranes.

When calorie intake is low, proteins are the last resource the body uses for fuel. Which statement below gives the best reason for this?

When the body uses proteins as fuel, it is breaking down substances vital to its structure and essential functions.
Correct. Proteins are essential to every activity of the body, from the cellular to the organismal level.

DNA nucleotides are composed of _____.

deoxyribose sugars, which are bonded to a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base

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