Scientists Who Studied Atomic Structure

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39 terms · Honors Chemistry, Harrison; Chapters 3 & 4: Atomic Structure/Electron Configuration

Democritus

Scientist/philosopher from about 400 B.C.

Democritus

Atomos: indivisible particles

1

Democritus

John Dalton

Early 1800s

John Dalton

Discovered first modern atomic theory

John Dalton

Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms

John Dalton

All atoms of the same element are identical, but they differ from those of any other element

John Dalton

Atoms unite in definite ratios to form compounds

John Dalton

Chemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms; the atoms themselves are not changed

2

John Dalton

J. J. Thomson, Robert Millikan, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr

Early 1900s

J. J. Thomson

Cathode ray tube/Crooke's tube

J. J. Thomson

Cathode rays are negatively charged particles

electrons

Cathode rays were eventually figured out to be ___

J. J. Thomson

First person to really discover the electron

J. J. Thomson

Speed of the electron

e/m=k

Charge/mass ratio for the electron

amount of charge on the electron

In the ratio e/m=k, e stands for ___

mass of the electron

In the ratio e/m=k, m stands for ___

constant

In the ratio e/m=k, k stands for ___

coulomb

Unit that measures electricity

k was the same no matter what metal was used for the cathode

How were all electrons discovered to be the same?

J. J. Thomson

Created "Plum/Rice Pudding Theory" of the atom

3

J.J. Thomson

Robert Millikan

Oil drop apparatus

Robert Millikan

Experimentally found charge of electrons

Robert Millikan

Using the equation e/m=k, he calculated the mass of the electron

4

Robert Millikan

Ernest Rutherford

Fired alpha particles/helium nuclei/positively charged particles at gold foil

Ernest Rutherford

Deflection of particles led to discarding the "rice pudding" theory

Ernest Rutherford

Created the nuclear/planetary model of the atom

Ernest Rutherford

Center of atom is a sphere of positive charge

Ernest Rutherford

Electrons orbit the nucleus in 3-D space

Ernest Rutherford

Most of the atom is empty space

Ernest Rutherford

Predicted the existence of neutrons

5

Ernest Rutherford

Niels Bohr

Modified Rutherford's model of the atom

Niels Bohr

Stated that electrons must occupy SPECIFIC orbits around the nucleus

6

Niels Bohr

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