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Three types of muscular tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

Skeletal Muscle

striated, works mainly in a voluntary manner

Cardiac Muscle

found only in the walls of the heart, striated, involuntary

Smooth Muscle

located in the walls of hollow internal structures, lacks striations, involuntary

Functions of muscular tissue

producing body movements, stabalizing body positions, moving substances with the body, generating heat

properties of muscular tissue

excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity

Excitability

ability to respond to stimuli

contractility

ability to contract forcefully when stimulated

extensibility

ability to stretch without being damaged

elasticity

ability to return to an original length

fascia

dense sheet or broad band of irregular CT that surrounds muscles

epimysium

the outer most layer, separates muscle fibers into bundles called fascicles

perimysium

surrounds numerous bundles of fascicles

endomysium

separates individual muscle fiber from one another

tendon

cord that attach muscle to a bone

aponeuosis

broad, flattened tendon (attach the muscle to the structures that they move)

hypertrophy

the way muscle growth occurs

satellite cells

retain the capacity to regenerate damaged muscle fibers

sacolemma

the plasma membrane of a muscle cell

transverse tubules

tunnel in from the plasma membrane, muscle action potential travel through them

sarcopolasm

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

myoglobin

releases oxygen when itis needed for ATP production

myofibrils

thread like structures whcih have a contractile function

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

membraneous sacs which encircles each myofibril and stores the calcium ions

sarcomeres

basic functional unit of a myofibril

z-discs

separate one sarcomere from the next

A band

darker middlepart of sarcomere, thick and thin filaments overlap one another

I band

lighter, contains thin filaments but no thick filaments

H zone

center of each A band which contains thick but no thin filaments

M line

supporting proteins that hold the thick filaments together in the H zone

Regulatory Proteins

switch the contraction process on and off

Contractile proteins

generate force during contraction

myosin

thick filaments that functions as a motor protein which can achieve motion

actin

thin filaments that provide a site where a myosin head can attach

structural proteins

align the thick and thin filaments properly

titin

stabilize the position of myosin

dystrophin

links thin filaments t the sarcolemma

synapse

where communication occurs between a somatic motor neuron and a muscle fiber

synaptic cleft

gap that separates the two cells

neurotransmitter

chemical released by the initial cell communicating with the second cell

synaptic vesicles

sacs suspended within the synaptic end bulb containing molecules of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine

motor end plate

the region of the muscle cell membrane opposite the synaptic end bults, contain Ach receptors

Botulinum toxin

blolcks release of Ach from synaptic vesicles

Creatine Phosphate

excess ATP is used to synthesize creatin phosphate and transfer a phosphate group to ADP

Anaerobic Respiration

series of ATP producing reactions that do not require oxygen

Aerobic Respiration

pyruvic acid is completely oxidized generating ATP, carbon dioxide, water, and heat

The 4 periods of contraction

latent period, contraction period, relaxation period, refractory period

Isotonic contraction

the tension developed remains constant while the muscle changes its length

isometric contraction

the tension generated is not enough for the object to be moved and the muscle does not change its length

Aging of muscle

brings a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, decrease in maximal strength, slowing of muscle reflexes, and loss of flexibility

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