9th grade biology midterm

86 terms by KerriMejia

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Transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

nucleotide

monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleueus: consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

histone

globular protein molecule around wihch DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

replication

copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

DNA polymerase

enzyme that profreads new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a neraly perfect copy of the original DNA

gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and this determines a trait

messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

ribosomal RNA

type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

transfer RNA

type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

transcription

process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA

RNA polymerase

enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription

SEM

scanning electon microscopes shine a narrow beam of electrons BACK AND FORTH a thin specimen's SURFACE

TEM

transmission electron microscope shines a beam THROUGH a specimen and gives a detailed picture of the INSIDE of a cell

atom-3 parts

smallest unit of matter consisting of protons(positive charge), neutrons(neutral charge), electons(negative charge)

carbohydrates

main source of energy in living things are made up of compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms

lipids

large group of organic compounds that make up fats, hormones, and building blocks of the cell membrane

cell theory

all living things are composed of cells and all new cells are produced from existing cells

prokaryotes

cells that have genetic material that isn't contained in a nucleus-example bacteria

eukaryotes

cells that contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell, except bacteria

nucleus

contains nearly all of the cells DNA and with it the coated instructions for making proteins and other important molecules

lysosomes

small organelles filled with enzymes that helps digest foreign particles

chloroplasts

organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis

autotroph

organisms which make their own food, such as plants

heterotroph

organisms such as animals which cannot use the sun's energy directly

ATP

consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and 3 phosphate groups, also high energy bonds between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate groups

granum

stack of thylakoids

stroma

Calvin Cycle takes place here, where sugars are produced

promoter

region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

intron

intervening sequence of DNA:does not code for a protein

exon

expressed sequence of DNA: codes for a protein

codon

3 nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

translation

decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

point mutation

mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another

polyploidy

condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes

karyotype

set of photographs of chromosomes grouped in ordered pairs

sex chromosome

one of two chromosomes that determine an individuals sex

autosome

a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, 44 of these

pedigree

a charge that shows the relationships within a faimly

sex-linked gene

gene located on the x or y chromosome

nondisjuction

error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate

DNA fingerprinting

an analysis of sections of DNA that have little or not function, but vary widely from individual to another in order to identify individuals

genetics

the scientific study of heredity

fertilization

during sexual reproduction, male and female reproductive cells join

true breeding

if allowed to self pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves

trait

specific characteristiv, such as seed color or plant height, that varies from one individula to anoth

Hybrids

the offspring of crosses betwenn parents with different traits

Genes

the chemical factors that determine traits

Alleles

the different forms of a gene

Segregation

separation

Gametes

sex cells

Probability

the likelihood that a particular event will occur

Punnet square

A drawing diagram that shows gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

Homozygous

organisms that have two same alleles for the same trait

Heterozygous

organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait

Phenotype

physical characteristics

Genotype

genetic makeup

Incomplete dominance

were one allele is not completely dominant over another

Codominance

both alleles contrubute to the phenotype.

Multiple alleles

When genes have more than two alleles

Polygenic traits

having many genes

Mitosis

the first stage, division of the cell nucleus

Cytokinesis

the second stage, division of the cytoplasm

Chromatid

identical sister structures, two of which are contained in each chromosome

Centromere

usually located near the middle of the chromatids, although some lie near the ends

Interphase

"in between" period of growth

Cell Cycle

the series of events that cells fo through as they grow and divide

Prophase

can take as much as 50 to 60 percent of the total time required to complete

Centrioles

two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope seperate and take up position on opposite sides of the neucleus

Spindle

a fanlike microtube structure that helps seperate the chromosomes

Metaphase

the chromosomes line up accross the center of the cell

Anaphase

centromeres that join the sister chomatids split, allowing the sister chromatids to separate and become individual chromosomes

Telophase

Fourth and final phas, Chromosomes which were distinct and condensed, begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

Cyclin

protein which regulates the cell cycle

Cancer

a disorder in which some of the bodys own cells loses the ability to control growth is one such such example

Homologue

each of teh 4 chromosomes that came from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent

Diploid

a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes

Haploid

one set

Meiosis

a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell

Tetrad

in prophase of meiosis 1, each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome to form a tetrad

Crossing over

When homologous chromosomes pair up and form tetrads in meiosis 1, they exchang portions of their chromatids in a process called crossing-over

Gene map

showing the relative locations of each know gene on one of the Drosophila chromosomes

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