A complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose operations are directed toward common goals and are influenced by the environmental in which they function.
Processes in one part of the criminal justice system affect processes in other parts of the system.
A facility authorized to hold pretrial detainees and sentenced misdemeanors for period longer than 48 hours. Most jails are administered by county governments; sometimes they are part of the state government.
A variety of punishments that are more restrictive than traditional probation but less severe and costly than incarceration.
An institution for the incarceration of people convicted of serious crimes usually felonies.
An agency that supervises the community adjustment of people who are convicted of crimes but are not sentenced to confinement in prison or jail.
Pennsylvania (separate system)
Goal: Redemption of the offender through the well ordered routine of the prison. Implementation: Isolation, penance, contemplation, labor, silence. Method: Inmated are kept in their cells for eating, sleeping, and working. Activities: Bible reading and crafts in cell.
New York (Auburn) (congregate system)
Goal: Redemption of the offender through the well ordered routine of the prison. Implementation: Strict discipline: obedience, labor, silence. Method: Inmates sleep in their cells but come together to eat and work. Activity: Work together in shops making good to be sold by the state.
Cesare Beccaria and the Classical School
Beccaria focused on the lack of a rational link between the gravity of given crimes and the severity of the punishment. He argued the only reason for punishment is the safety it afford society by preventing crime.
Six Principles (Cesare Beccaria)
1.The basis of all social action must be the utilitarian concept of the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
2. Crime must be considered an injury to society and the only rational measure of crime is the extent of injury.
3. Prevention of crime is more important than punishment for crimes.
4. The accused have the right to speedy trials and to humane treatment before trial, ad well as every right to bring forward evidence on their behalf.
5. The purpose of punishment is deterrence not revenge. Certainty and swiftness of punishment rather than severity best secure this goal.
6. Imprisonment should be more widely employed with better quarters and with prisoners classified by age, sex, and degree of criminality.
Punishment inflicted on a person who had infringed the rights of others and so deserves to be penalized. The severity of the sanction should fit the seriousness of the crime.
Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the general public and to discourage crime by others.
Punishment inflicted on criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes.
Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes, usually by
A period of incarceration with minimum and maximum terms stipulated so that parole eligibility depends on the time necessary for treatment; closely associated with the concept of rehabilitation.
A fixed period of incarceration imposed by a court; associated with the concept of retribution.
The myth: "Three Strikes" laws that require judges to sentence offenders with three felony convictions to long prison terms such as life without parole tend to deter would be criminals and reduce the overall crime rate.
The reality: Research shows that after taking into account how often three strikes laws are used and considering other factors related to crime, three strikes laws have virtually no deterrent effect on crime.
The word Sheriff
Comes from "shire reeve"among other duties, caught and held custody until a formal court hearing determined guilt or innocence, people accused of breaking the kings law.
A facility authorized to hold people before court appearance for up to 48 hours. Most lock ups (also called drunk tanks or holding tanks) are administered by the local police agencies.
An amount of money, specified by a judge, to be posted as a condition for pretrial release to ensure the appearance of the accused in court.
An independent business person who provide bail money for a fee usually 5-10 percent of the total.
Release on Recognizance (ROR)
Pretrial release because the judge believes the defendants ties in the community are sufficient to guarantee the defendants appearance in court.
An increase in inmates the more problems.
Self-contained living areas, for 12-25 inmates, composed for individual cellsfor privacy and open areas for social interaction. New-generation jails are made up of two or more pods.
A method of correctional supervision in which staff members have direct physical interaction,with inmates throughout the day.
Four factors usually cited in support of community corrections
1. Many offenders' criminal records and current offenses are not serious enough to warrant incarceration.
2. Community supervision is cheaper than incarceration.
3. Rates of recidivism, or returning to crimes for those under community supervisions are no higher than for those who go to prison.
4. Ex-inmates require both support and supervision as they try to remake their lives in the community.
History of Probation/ John Augustus
John Augustus, was the first to provide bail for defendents under authority of the Boston Police Court in 1841. First probation officer. Acted as a counsel, and found housing for the accused.
Functions served by jails
1. Receive individuals pending arraignment and hold them awaiting trial or conviction.
2. Readmit probation parole and bail bond violators.
3. Hold people for the military protective custody.
4. Transfer to federal, state or other authorities.
5. House inmates for federal, state or other authorities due to overcrowding.
A facility that houses a diverse population or pretrial detainees, convicted misdemeanors and difference.
The movement towards having corrections facilities or specific functions within those facilities constructed or operated by private contracts.
ex. drug treatment
Jail inmate programming
Special needs inmates.
People who have problems outside of jail bring those problems into jail with them.
3 Factors of limiting Programming. (essay question)
1.Transient Population: much of the jail population is transient they are in and out on a frequent basis.
2. Lack of Physical Space
3. Lack of money: Security is always first priority.
Examples of Programming (essay question)
Medical Treatment and Programs: HIV testing and treatment
Counseling: AA & NA
Rehabilitative services: Church services, recreation, coping skills, anger management.
Educational/Vocational Training: GED
Alternatives to Incarceration(essay question)
Fines and Forfeitures
Linear Intermittent Surveillance/Supervision (Jail Designs)
Can not supervise people well enough. No jails being built like this.
Indirect Supervision (Jail Designs)
OC Jail/IRC Theo Lacy. Most high level. (half circle, and people are in a room supervising).
Direct Supervision (Jail Designs)
Santa Ana Detention Facility. Get to know how people act. (only a line separating them from the inmates)
Eastern State Penitentiary(VIDEO)
Quakers set it up. Isolation and religion would reform.