Cultural Diversity in Health Care

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Exam #1

Every person has a culture.

True

Culture is static.

False

African American men in Harlem have a shorter life expectancy from age five than which of the following groups?

All of the above (Japanese, Bangladeshis, Cubans, Algerians living in Paris)

How does US life expectancy compare to other countries?

29th place

On average, how many supermarkets are there in predominantly White neighborhoods compared to predominantly Black and Latino neighborhoods?

4x as many

Who was the founder of the field of transcultural nursing?

Leninger

All these are models that promote the delivery of culturally competent care except:

health belief model

Culturally discordant care is:

Care arising from unaddressed cultural differences between health care providers and patients

Giger and Davidhizar's transcultural assessment model focuses on the six phenomena they believe shape care:

communication, space, social organization, time, environmental control, and biologic variations

What should a health care provider do if they feel they have caused cultural pain?

Act on this feeling and ask if they said or did something offensive.

How is cultural safety defined?

The practice of actively examining social, economic and political positions and power differences between the patient and the nurse.

Ethnocentrism

the view that one's culture is superior to another

space

the distance between people

social organization

the manner in which a cultural group organizes itself around the family group

assimilation

identification mostly with the dominant culture

integration

high identification with both cultures

separation

identification largely with the ethnic culture

marginalization

low identification with both cultures

biological variation

how people respond to different drugs

When completing a cultural assessment, which areas should the nurse first assess?

nurse's own cultural values

socialization

total set of experiences in which children become clean about norms and expectations and learn how to function as respected and accepted members of a culture

According to the US Census Bureau ethnic minority groups are expected to increase to what percentage by the year 2020?

36%

Based on Locke's definition of culture

culture is learned

Members of a particular racial group do __ share a common culture

NOT

secondary characteristics of culture

come from life circumstances (can change over time) (occupation, educational status, political belief)

race

socially constructed through political, legal, economic, and scientific institutions

ethnicity

a social & cultural construct

Cultural desire

the motivation of the healthcare professional to "want to" engage in the process of becoming culturally competent

cultural skill

the ability to collect relevant cultural data regarding the client's presenting problem as well as accurately perform a culturally based physical assessment.

cultural encounters

the process which encourages the healthcare professional to directly engage in face-to-face interactions with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds

cultural knowledge

the process of seeking & obtaining a sound educational base about culturally diverse groups

cultural awareness

self-examination and in-depth exploration of one's cultural background

The principal that is most important to the provision of culturally competent care is the health care provider's

awareness of personal stereotypes based on culture

Bolton et al., discuss historical incidents of racism in health care including the Hill-Burton Act. What did this allow?

Federal grants to be provided for hospitals that admittedly did not serve African Americans.

Kawachi et al., make the following main argument about how we should approach the issue of reducing/eliminating health disparities. They argue that the best interpretation of racial disparities in health is one that views

race and class as separate and important constructs

The healthcare workforce and its ability to deliver quality care to racial and ethnic minorities can be improved by substantially increasing the proportion of the underrepresented US racial and ethnic minorities among health professionals

True

The largest minority group in the US is

Hispanics

Which country is the primary source of immigration to the US?

Mexico

The easiest and quickest way to assess ________ is to ask the patient to repeat back an explanation or instruction

Comprehension

When interacting with any patient you can be sure that a handshake or pat on the back will always put them at ease and will communicate warmth.

False

Quality care isn't possible if the provider lacks sensitivity to the patient's

culture

In order for people to receive adequate health care, a number of potential barriers need to be addressed:

accessibility, affordability, approachability

disease-oriented with the goal of determining the biologic or pathologic cause and executing a cure for that disease process

western biomedical model

a field of study that investigates the variant responses to drugs in ethnic and racial groups

ethnic pharmacology

arises from unaddressed cultural differences between healthcare providers and their patients

culturally discordant care

goes beyond knowing the values, beliefs, practices & customs of diverse groups to include religious affiliations, language, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, geographical location, and more

cultural diversity

Diseases, disorders, and conditions that disproportionally afflict members of racial, ethnic, minority, under served and other vulnerable groups

health disparities

Recognition of the limitations of one's cultural perspective that makes one work toward overcoming this perspective to provide better nursing care to all patients

cultural humility

In contemporary US society, many individuals, probably the majority, are, or consider themselves to be ____________ ,which is not the same as being biracial or multiracial

bicultural

The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services formally known as

INS

largest refugee resettlement country in the world

United States

liminality

living between two cultures

In order for people to receive adequate health care, a number of potential barriers need to be addressed

accessibility, affordability, approachability

A field of study that investigates variant responses to drugs in ethnic and racial groups

ethnic pharmacology

The US is the ______ largest market for women and children trafficked into sex work

second largest (germany=first)

3 sources of disparities

bias, discrimination, stereotyping

key tool to attempt to overcome healthcare disparities

education

provides framework for decision-making

values

personal standards to determine right from wrong

morals

most important predictor of health status

socioeconomic status

The western biomedical model is:

health provider-focused model

One half to three quarters of Euro-Americans believe that relative to Whites, minorities, particularly African-Americans, are less intelligent, more prone to violence and prefer to live off welfare

true

deontology

Proposes that ethical standards are held absolutely and categorically

contextualism

Proposes that ethics are bound to time and place and possess cultural relativism

While the number of nurses has grown dramatically in recent years, the following populations are under-represented among nurses today:

men & minorities

ethical frameworks

utilitarianism, liberalism, contextualism, deontology

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