Bio

51 terms by josy_hj Plus

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allele

genetic instructions for a specific trait

directional selection

individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end

stabilizing selection

individuals near the center of the curve have a higher fitness than individuals at either end

disruptive selection

individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

genetic drift

random change in the genetic information

ecology

study of living organisms and their interactions in their physical environment

ecosystem

all living things in a physical environment

evaporation

the process of water in liquid form changing into gas form

condensation

water vapor forming from cold, The change of state from a gas to a liquid

precipitation

rain, hail, snow, sleet

evapotranspiration

when water is transfered into the atmosphere by evaporating off plants/soil

consumers/heterotrophs

organisms that rely on others for energy/food

producers/autotrophs

organisms that take energy sunlight to create food

detritivores

organisms that consume remains and dead matter

decomposers

heterotrophs that break down organic matter

combustion

process of burning

fossil fuels

natural fuel (coal/gas) formed in the past from remains of living organisms

biome

a region characterized by certain sunlight and rainfall conditions

immigration

the movement of individuals into an area

emigration

the movement of individuals out of an area

carrying capacity

the largest number of organisms that an environment can support

nitrogen fixation

the conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia

denitrification

when other soil bacteria convert nitrates and nitrites back into nitrogen gas (N2)

atom

basic unit of matter

half-life

the length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay

speciation

the evolutionary process by which new species arise

species

a group of organisms so alike that they can mate and produce fertile offspring

isotope

unstable form of an element - irregular number of subatomic particles

macroevolution

big evolutionary changes that take place of long periods of time

microevolution

evolutionary change within a species or small groups of organisms usually over short periods of time

evolution

the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

theory

a well-supported testable explanation

fossils

preserved remains of ancient organisms

fitness

the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in a given environment

adaptation

an inherited trait that increase the chance of survival

population

a group of organisms of one species that interbreed and live in the same place at the same time

parasitism

one organism lives in or on another and harms the host

commensalism

an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm

community

an area composed of a group of organisms or populations of different species occupying a particular space

interspecies competition

when individuals of different species compete over a variety of limiting factors

symbiosis

a relationship between organisms in which at least one organism benefits

competitive exclusion

two species competing for the same resources can not stably coexist in the same niche

biodiversity

a diversity of species

r-strategist

creatures that are small, demand very few resources, have no parental care, and have lots of offspring (high death rate).

exponential growth

when individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate (J-shaped curve). When the population grows exponentially under ideal conditions and unlimited resources

sustainability

maintaining balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources

k-strategist

plans for carrying capacity, fewer babies but greater care, low death rate.

logistical growth

when a populations' growth slows or stops, following a period of exponential growth.

maximum sustainable yield

the maximum number of prey which can be killed such that the number of prey is below carrying capacity and predators thrive.

dynamic equilibrium

when a population oscillates around the carrying capacity

limiting factors

factors that control organism/species growth, population, or distribution

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