Chapter 9 - Managing Human Resources and Diversity

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for exam 2

human resource management (HRM)

-refers to the design and application of formal systems in an org to ensure the effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish org goals

human capital

-refers to the economic value of the combined knowledge, experience, skills, and capabilities of employees

discrimination

-occurs when some applicants are hired or promoted based on criteria that are not job relevant; for example, refusing to hire a black applicant for a job he is qualified to fill or paying a woman a lower wage than a man for the same work

affirmative action

-requires that an employer take positive steps to guarantee equal employment opportunities for people within protected groups

contingent workers

-people who work for an org, but not on a permanent or full-time basis

telecommuting

-using computers and telecommunications equipment to do work without going to an office

matching model

-a human resources approach in which the org and the individual attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values

human resource planning

-the forecasting of human resource needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies

recruiting

-defined as "activities or practices that define the characteristics of applicants to whom selection procedures are ultimately applied
-sometimes referred to as talent acquisition

job analysis

-a systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job, as well as about the context within which the job is performed

job description

-a clear and concise summary of the specific tasks, duties, and responsibilities, and job specifications, which outline the knowledge, skills, education, physical abilities, and other characteristics needed to adequately perform the job

job specification

-outlines the knowledge, skills, education, physical abilities, and other characteristics needed to adequately perform a specific job

realistic job previews (RJP)

-gives applicants all pertinent and realistic information--positive and negative--about the job and the org

affirmative action

-refers to the use of goals, timetables, or other methods in recruiting to promote the hiring, development, and retention of protected groups

e-recruiting

-also, recruiting job applicants online
-dramatically extends the org's recruiting reach, offering access to a wider pool of applicants and saving time and money

selection

-a process where employers assess applicants' characteristics in an attempt to determine the "fit" between the job and applicant characteristics

application form

-used to collect information about the applicant's education, previous job experience, and other background characteristics

structured interviews

-use a set of standardized questions that are asked of every applicant so comparisons an easily be made
-may include biographical (ask about a person's life and work experience), behavioral (ask people to describe how they have performed a certain task or handled a particular problem, and situational (requires people to describe how they might handle a hypothetical situation)

non-directive interviews

-allow the applicant a great deal of freedom in determining the course of the conversation, with the interviewer taking care not to influence the person's remarks
-interviewer asks broad, open-ended questions and permits the applicant to talk freely with minimal interruption

panel interviews

-the candidate meets with several interviewers who take turns asking questions

employee tests

-may include cognitive ability tests, physical ability tests, personality inventories, and other assessments

cognitive ability tests

-measure an applicant's thinking, reasoning, verbal, and mathematical abilities

physical ability tests

-measure qualities such as strength, energy, and endurance

personality tests

-used to assess such characteristics such as openness to learning, agreeableness, responsibility, creativity, and emotional stability

assessment centers

-present a series of managerial situations to groups of applicants over a two- or three-day period

in-basket simulation

-an assessment center technique
-requires the applicant to play the role of a manager who must decide how to respond to ten memos in his or her in-basket within a two-hour period

work sample tests

-require an applicant to complete simulated tasks that are a part of the desired job

on-the-job training (OJT)

-the most common type of training
-an experienced employee is asked to take a new employee "under his or her wing" and show the newcomer how to perform job duties

corporate university

-a popular approach to training and development
-an in-house training and education facility that offers broad-based learning opportunities for employees--and frequently for customers, suppliers, and strategic partners as well--throughout their careers

mentoring

-an experienced employee guides and supports a newcomer or less-experienced employee
-the experienced employee typically offers counsel regarding how to network and advance in the company in addition to guiding the employee in developing his or her skills and abilities

coaching

-a method of directing, instructing, and training a person, with the goal to develop specific management skills
-usually applies to higher-level managers who want to develop their personal competencies

performance appraisal

-comprises the steps of observing and assessing employee performance, recording and assessment, and providing feedback to the employee

360-degree feedback

-a recent trend in performance appraisal
-a process that uses multiple raters, including self-rating, as a way to increase awareness of strengths and weaknesses and guide employee development

stereotyping

-one of the most dangerous rating problems
-occurs when a rater places an employee into a class or category based on one or a few traits or characteristics--for example, an older woman is slower and more difficult to train

halo effect

-another rating error
-a manager gives an employee the same rating on all dimensions, even if his or her performance is good on some dimensions and poor on others

behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

-a performance evaluation technique that relates an employee's performance to specific job-related incidents

compensation

-refers to (1) all monetary payments and (2) all goods or commodities used in lieu of money to reward employees
-the structure includes wages and salaries and benefits such as health insurance, paid vacations, or employee fitness centers

job-based pay

-the most common approach to employee compensation
-linking compensation to the specific tasks an employee performs

skill-based pay systems

-becoming increasingly popular in both large and small companies
-employees with higher skill levels receive higher pay than those with lower skill levels
-also called competency-based pay; encourages people to develop their skills and competencies, thus making them more valuable to the org as well as more employable if they leave their current jobs

job evaluation

-refers to the process of determining the value or worth of jobs within an org through an examination of job content
-enable managers to compare similar and dissimilar jobs and to determine internally equitable pay rates

wage and salary surveys

-show what other orgs pay incumbents in jobs that match a sample of "key" jobs selected by the org

pay for performance

-also called incentive pay
-tying at least part of compensation to employee effort and performance, whether it be through merit-based pay, bonuses, team incentives, or various gain-sharing or profit-sharing plans

rightsizing

-refers to intentionally reducing the company's workforce to the point where the number of of employees is deemed to be right for the company's current situation
-also called downsizing

exit interview

-an interview conducted with departing employees to determine why they are leaving

diversity

-defined as all the ways in which people differ

managing diversity

-a key management skill in today's global economy
-creating a climate in which the potential advantages of diversity for org or group performance are maximized, while the potential disadvantages are minimized

prejudice

-the tendency to view people who are different as being deficient

stereotypes

-rigid, exaggerated, irrational beliefs associated with a particular group of people
-a major component of prejudice

stereotype threat

-describes the psychological experience of a person who, when engaged in a task, is aware of a stereotype about his or her identity group suggesting that he or she will not perform well on that task

ethnocentrism

-the belief that one's own group and subculture are inherently superior to other groups and cultures
-makes it difficult to value diversity

monoculture

-ethnocentric viewpoints and a standard set of cultural practices produce this
-a culture that accepts only one way of doing things and one set of values and beliefs, which can cause problems for minority employees

ethnorelativism

-the belief that groups and subcultures are inherently equal

pluralism

-an org accommodates several subcultures

glass ceiling

-an invisible barrier that separates women from top management positions

cultural competence

-the ability to interact effectively with people if different cultures

5 steps towards cultural competence

1. identifying diversity problems
2. strengthening top management commitment
3. choosing solutions
4. demanding results
5. maintaining momentum

mentor

-a higher-ranking org member who is committed to providing upward mobility and support to a protege's professional career

diversity training

-helps people identify their own cultural boundaries, prejudices, and stereotypes and develop the skills for managing and working in a diverse workplace

multicultural teams

-teams made up of members from diverse national, racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds
-provide even greater potential for enhanced creativity, innovation, and value in today's global marketplace

employee network groups

-based on social identity, such as gender or race, and are organized by employees to focus on concerns of employees from that group
-pursue a variety of activities, such as meetings to educate top managers, mentoring programs, networking events, training sessions and skills seminars, minority intern programs, and community volunteer activites

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