Chapter 20 Circulatory System, Blood Vessels

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Arteries are sometimes called the ____ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they ca stand high blood pressue

resistance

____ have the thickest tunica media

large arteries

The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the ____ and in large arteries and veins contains the _____

tunica externa; vasa vasorum

Most blood is in the

veins

This figure shows variations in circulatory pathways. The pathway labeled ____ shows alternative routes of blood supply found in the heart.

5

These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except

heart -- arteries-- capillary bed -- vein -- capillary bed -- arteries -- heart

vasomotion is associated with the presence of

smooth muscle in the tunica media

in people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by

failure of the venous veins

This figure shows changes in blood pressure relative to distance from the heart. What would be the approximate blood pressure in a blood vessel leaving the stomach for a person lying on her back (not standing)?

below 20 mm Hg

What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?

80 mm Hg

The velocity of blood flow decreases when

viscosity increases

The medullary ischemic reflex results in

increased circulation to the brain

_____ has the most important effect on blood velocity

Vessel radius

Reactive hyperemia is a result of ___ to increase perfusion into a tissue

local control

All of these increase blood pressure except

atrial natriuretic peptide

The vasomotor center of the ____ controls blood vessels throughout the body.

medulla oblongata

Hypertensian is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than

140/90

____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and ____ also increased heart rate.

Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine

These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except

secretion

The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of capillary is

blood hydrostatic pressure

____ by the capillaries at their venous end.

ammonia is taken up

the most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is

blood colloid osmotic pressure

all these can lead to edema except

hyperproteinemia

____ would not increase capillary filtration

dehydration

a mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause ____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause

syncope; cerebral edema

____ does not contribute to venous return

widespread vasodilation

___ shock can be produced by hemmorage, severe burns, or dehydration

Hypovolemic

____ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability

Septic

A bee sting can trigger a massive release histamine, which cause ____ and a(n) ____ in arterial blood pressure

vasodilation; decrease

Myocardial infarction can lead to ___ shock

cardiogenic

The most important force in venous flow is

the pressure generated by the heart

Blood flow in the ___ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg

hypothalamus

Pulmonary arteries have ____ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.

considerably lower

How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?

0

The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the

bronchial arteries

There are no ____ in humans

right and left brachiocephalic arteries

The ____ supplies 80% of the cerebrum

internal carotid artery

This figure shows the aorta and its major branches What label shows the artery on the right side of the body with the most extensive distrubution of all the head-neck arteries?

1

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is

an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland

This figure shows the superficial veins of the neack and head. What does "8" represent?

the subclavian v.

From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are

celiac trunk, superior mesentric artery, renel arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common illiac arteries.

The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of

the azygos system

This figure shows the arteries of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "6" represent?

the inferior mesenteric a.

These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except

the vertebral veins

This figure shows the arteries of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "2" represent?

the hepatic portal vein

This figure shows veins of the upper limb. What does "5" represent?

the brachial vein(s)

This figure shows arteries of the lower limb. What does "6" represent?

the femoral artery

These are all veins of the upper limb except

the great saphenous vein

These are all vessels of the lower limb except

the anterior interosseaous artery

This is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery.

the great saphenous vein

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