SOCIOLOGY test 2

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Thomas Malthus believed that the human population grows ____________, but the ability to produce food increases ____________.

geometrically; arithmetically

Hegel felt that the relationship between slave and master was dialectic. This means

each is dependent on the other.

What group sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages?

proletariat

Pareto believed in a society in which status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability, called:

meritocracy

Mills argues that there are three major institutional forces in modern American society in which the power of decision making has become centralized. What are they?

economic institutions, political order, military order

Judith Lorber believes that gender is a social institution because it:

is a major structure organizing our day-to-day experiences.

Feminist philosopher Elizabeth Grosz proposed that we view the relationship between sex (the natural) and gender (the social) as existing on a Möbius strip because

sex and gender are two side of the same coin, and thus inseparable.

Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein argues that deceptive distinctions are those sex differences that arise out of the roles individuals occupy, rather than some innate force. Which of the following is NOT an example of deceptive distinctions?
a. A woman who is a nurse and behaves in nurturing and emotive ways.
b. A man who is a supreme court judge and behaves in rational and restrained ways.
c. A girl who is a cheerleader and acts unanimated and unenthusiastic.
d. A boy who is a football player who acts fearless and bold.

c.A girl who is a cheerleader and acts unanimated and unenthusiastic.

Feminist psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow believes that if men share mothering with women, then:

egalitarian relationships will be possible

Carol Gilligan found boys and girls played differently on the playground. In comparison to boys, girls tended to:

play more cooperative and people-based games

Patricia Hill Collins claims that gender intersects with race, class, nationality, and religion. Which group has made the case that early liberal feminism was largely by, about, and for white middle-class women?

black feminists

What term refers to the invisible barriers women face when they enter more prestigious corporate worlds?

glass ceiling

In the nineteenth century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to:

scientific racism.

Robert Park's model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called:

straight-line assimilation.

Clifford Geertz used what term to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated?

primordialism

In chapter 10, according to the culture of poverty theory, what happens once survival adaptations are in place

They hold poor people back

In chapter 10, according to the underclass thesis, the poor are:

deviant and dangerous to mainstream society.

In chapter 10, Charles Murray pointed out several flaws in the underclass thesis. Which of the following is NOT one the flaws he mentions?
a. The welfare state provides the wrong long-term incentives.
b. Welfare regulations make work less attractive.
c. Welfare regulations make marriage less attractive.
d. Welfare regulations encourage deviant behavior.

d. Welfare regulations encourage deviant behavior.

In chapter 10, William Julius Wilson believed that there were factors other than welfare that led to a lack of inner-city job opportunities. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors?
a. gentrification c. globalization
b. suburbanization d. industrialization

d. industrialization

In chapter 10, in the 1980s, journalist Ken Auletta coined the phrase "underclass." He said the underclass was different from the "rest of us" in what way?

They tended to be more dangerous to the rest of us.

In chapter 10, Herrnstein and Murray argued that there is a relationship between high IQ and:

good parenting.

In chapter 10, from her research, Susan Mayer concluded that it was not poverty, but rather ____________, that really mattered.

our desires

In chapter 11, a study of Cherokee children whose income greatly increased due to legalized gambling on reservations found that:

their behavioral problems decreased.

In chapter 11, the Gini coefficient is:

a measure of economic inequality.

In chapter 11, one of the criticisms of the Whitehall Study is that the researchers did not adequately address the possibility that occupational and health differences were caused by:

underlying personality differences.

In chapter 11, why did the elderly who received more Social Security have higher mortality rates than the elderly who received less Social Security and had to work part time

d. Working had a positive impact on their longevity due to social interaction.

In chapter 11, which of the following is NOT one of the factors associated with the positive correlation between socioeconomic status and health?
a. A person's lower social class status relative to those around them makes for feelings of inadequacy, and this stress wears down one's body.
b. A person of lower social class has less access to a healthy lifestyle.
c. Higher status people have more access to information promoting good health.
d. Lower status people tend to be less motivated to take care of themselves physically because they anticipate dying young anyway.

a. A person's lower social class status relative to those around them makes for feelings of inadequacy, and this stress wears down one's body.

Which of the following contributes to higher rates of heart disease and hypertension in women than men?

More women are entering high-level jobs.

In chapter 12, Sarah Fenstermaker Berk has characterized the American family by examining how women and men learn to take on distinct roles paralleling the divide between public and private spheres. She calls the family a:

"gender factory."

In chapter 12, journalist Barbara Ehrenreich traveled around the country to study firsthand what it was like to "get by" working low-wage jobs. All of the following is true about her experiences EXCEPT:
a. With only herself to support and juggling two or more jobs, she could not afford to live off her wages.
b. She felt that if she had only worked harder, she would have been able to "get by."
c. She sunk deeper into debt, regardless of how much effort and time she put into her work.
d. She was surprised at how difficult her work was, and was relieved to be able to go back to her "old" lifestyle.

b. She felt that if she had only worked harder, she would have been able to "get by."

In chapter 12, in his book The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today (2009), sociologist Andrew Cherlin proposes that America's "love-hate" relationship with marriage stems from all of the following EXCEPT that:
a. Americans value marriage very highly; almost 90% of Americans eventually marry.
b. Americans are very individualistic and evaluate their marriage in very personal terms.
c. Americans feel justified ending a marriage that is not personally and emotionally satisfying.
d. Americans are polyamorous by nature and have difficulty committing themselves to one person for a lifetime.

c. Americans feel justified ending a marriage that is not personally and emotionally satisfying.

Thomas malthus said what

Malthusian poverty trap = thought population was to lage, let pop. thin out naturally,

What does Collins "Matrix of domination" say?

Women are in different social positions

Lawrence bobo

structuaral linchpin of american enequality

John black Henry said what about black people

american values, have to work extra hard to prove themselfs

Arlie hochschild

second shift for women

John joc Rewsaw

property,
Inequality =physical and social

Thomas malthusus

Malthusius theory , over population, enequality useful to thin out population.

George hengle

Mutual acceptance, dialectic relationship

Velfredo Peredo

Meritocracy= merit based society, by merit, or best

C. wright Mills

3 institutions = economy/ polotics/ military

Gender is....

a social construct

caracteristics of gender

Sex= biological, Gender= social

Synthia foch ebstine

Deseptive distinctions, roles men and women play

Dr. John money

David ridnes, boy raised as girl

Dr John grey

men are from mars girls are from venus, men and women are different

Michal Kimmel Ideal man in 1700s

women wanted smart nerds today women want strong men

Telcott Parsons/ functionalist

Sex role theory , nuclear family

Jobs

pink collar =girls

Resken and Rouse

women in low wage jobs because men dont want jobs anymore

Glass celing

women

Glass escalator

men being promoted in a women based job

Karoll Gillian

girls play less structured games

Nancy chardow

egoistic

Clifford Gerts

Premordallisism

Robert Park

importance of culure in determining

ethnosentroism

only your race is best

Oscar lewis

cultural poverty, studies mexicans

William Wilson

peoples enviornment is the problem

Hurnstiene + Murray

Bell curve,
low income family have bad parents/ high income have good
Relative poverty= have money but cant buy new BMW

molly or Schanskey

poverty line

John Henryism

Married people V.S unmarried who lives longer

white house study

cival servants, mexicans

Exogamy

marry out of your group

endoggamy

marry within your group

Sara Fenstimiker berk

gender factoreis

Harley Hocchild

second shift, super mom

Ruth swarts Coren

time saving devices/females work even more

David ridner

boy raised as girl

monogamy

2 people married

Polygany

man with many wifes

Barbra Risman

notes that most people belive men and women are different

Chore wars

gender roles in the family

Zelzer

said men "help out'

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