Science Ch. 4

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101 terms · Test is tommorrow

nucleolus

round structure found in the nucleus of a cell. This is where ribosomes are made

chromatin

thin strands of material that fill the nucleus, contains information for directing the cell's function

telophase

two new nuclei form chromosomes appear as chromatin and mitosis ends

centrioles

a complex cellular organelle forming the center of the centrosome in most cells; usually found near the nucleus in interphase cells and at the spindle poles during mitosis

centromere

a specialized chromosome to which the spindle fibers are attached during mitosis

chromatids

one of the pair of strands formed by the splitting of a chromosome, which are joined by a single centromere in cells during mitosis

spindle fibers

pull the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell before it splits into two so that each cell has a full set of genetic material

prophase

chromatin condenses

metaphase

chromosomes attach to spindle fibers

anaphase

chromatids separate

telophase

new nuclear envelope forms

interphase

Which stage of the cell cycle usually lasts the longest. It is the first stage of the cell cycle

DNA replication

This occurs during interphase

cytokinesis

During which stage of the cell cycle does the cell membrane pinch the cell into two. It is the final stage of the cell cycle.

mitosis

stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides

cell cycle

regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo

replication

process in which DNA is copied. Process in which a cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus.

chromosome

double rod of condensed chromatin

cell division

The total number of cells in an organism increases as a result of which process?

cytokinesis in plant cells

The formation of a cell plate is a characteristic of what?

centromere

Chromatids are held together by this.

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

correct order for the parts of mitosis

interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase

incorrect order for the parts of mitosis

reproduce

Cell division allows organisms to grow, repair damaged structures, and what?

2 daughter cells

Result of cytokinesis.

characteristics of interphase

cell growth, and production of new organelles and enzymes are __________________

seven

It would take ________ cell divisions for one original cell to produce 128 new cells

chromatids

The two rod-like parts that make up a chromosome are called _______________

Tissue

A group of similar cells that work together to perform a function

chloroplast

an organelle that uses light to make food in plants

ribosome

an organelle that makes proteins

nucleus

the control center of the cell

mitochondria

an organelle that breaks down food to make energy. It looks rod shaped with squiggles or lines in it.

organ

a group of tissues that function together

multicellular

made up of many cells

cell membrane

controls the materials that enter and leave the cell

proteins

ribosomes make these

nucleus

a large structure that directs the cell's activities. It is the largest organelle and is oval shaped.

vacuole

the storage area of a cell

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform a major function

organelles

tiny structures that carry out specific functions in the cell

Plant

__________ cells have chloroplasts, but animal cells don't.

chromatin

The cell's nucleus is filled with a substance called _________

multicellular

The specialized cells in a _____________ organism perform specialized jobs.

nucleolus

Ribosomes are made in a special region of the nucleus called the ___________

cell membrane

The border between the cell and its environment.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

an organelle that looks like a maze of passageways. It has a network of membranes that produce many substances.

cytoplasm

gel-like substance that fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus and holds all of the organelles.

Tissue

A group of similar cells that work together to perform a function

chloroplast

an organelle that uses light to make food in plants

ribosome

an organelle that makes proteins

nucleus

the control center of the cell

mitochondria

an organelle that breaks down food to make energy. It looks rod shaped with squiggles or lines in it.

organ

a group of tissues that function together

multicellular

made up of many cells

cell membrane

controls the materials that enter and leave the cell

proteins

ribosomes make these

nucleus

a large structure that directs the cell's activities. It is the largest organelle and is oval shaped.

vacuole

the storage area of a cell

organ system

a group of organs that work together to perform a major function

organelles

tiny structures that carry out specific functions in the cell

Plant

__________ cells have chloroplasts, but animal cells don't.

chromatin

The cell's nucleus is filled with a substance called _________

multicellular

The specialized cells in a _____________ organism perform specialized jobs.

nucleolus

Ribosomes are made in a special region of the nucleus called the ___________

cell membrane

The border between the cell and its environment.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

an organelle that looks like a maze of passageways. It has a network of membranes that produce many substances.

cytoplasm

gel-like substance that fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus and holds all of the organelles.

Interphase

Chromosomes are copied (# doubles). Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase.

Prophase

Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide). Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles.

Metaphase

Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.

Anaphase

Chromotids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.

Telophase

Two new nuclei form. Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). Mitosis ends.

Cytokinesis

Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells - each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.

Interphase

Chromosomes are copied (# doubles). Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase.

Prophase

Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide). Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles.

Metaphase

Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.

Anaphase

Chromotids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.

Telophase

Two new nuclei form. Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). Mitosis ends.

Cytokinesis

Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells - each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.

Cells

are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.

Microscopes

are the instruments that can magnify very small objects.

Robert Hooke

Cells were first observed by who? Used his microscope to observe a thin slice of cork and dead bark.

Electron

these microscopes use beams of electrons to produce magnified images

Magnification

is the condition when objects appear larger than they really are.

Resolution

is the ability to distinguish details on an object.

200x

If a compound microscope has a 10x lens in its eyepiece and a 20x lens in its nosepiece, its total magnification is what?

100x

If a compound microscope has a 10x lens in its eyepiece and a10x lens in its nosepiece, its total magnification is what?

cell

The basic unit of structure in living things.

microscope

an instrument that makes small objects look larger.

cell theory

a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.

wastes

A cell's functions can include obtaining food and water and getting rid of

lenses

Compound microscopes focus light through what to produce a magnified image.

cells

A large organism is made up of many millions of what?

convex

This type of lens has a center that is thicker than its edge.

resolution

The ability to distinguish between two nearby objects is called what

Schwann

The scientist who determined that all animals are made out of cells was who?

400x

A compound microscope with a 10x eyepiece and a 40x objective has a magnification of what?

Cells can absorb food and oxygen

What statements is NOT part of the cell theory?

2.5

The visible field of a microscope is 10mm wide. How large is an object that takes up 1/4 of the field?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Was the first to see living cells through his microscope.

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