Fashion History: Directoire, Empire, Romantic, Crinoline, & Bustle Periods

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Fashion history through many periods from 1790 up to the 1890's.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew the directoire, ruled France from 1799-1812 during the Empire Period, Napoleon brought fashion back to the court; restricted garments from India

Bonnet rouge

Directoire period; the red cap of liberty

Sans culottes

Directoire period; working class men that wore baggy trousers instead of knee breeches; also wore carmagnole (short, woolen cloth jacket of dark color)

Carmagnole

Directoire period; short, woolen cloth jacket of dark color

Men's dress in Directoire Period

Didn't change much; fitted coat, waist coat, & knee breeches

Women's dress in Directoire Period

Cut with little or no sleeve; a low, round neckline; high waist; soft clinging fabrics (linnen/muslin); dress fell straight to the floor

Kashmir shawls

Directoire/Empire periods; popular & expensive; from India; Napoleon ordered to not to be imported & to be reproduced in France; first knock off; his wife still snuck them in w/o him knowing

Napoleon's wife, Josephine

Directoire/Empire period; had extensive wardrobe

Prince of Wales

Rules England after King George III; Directoire/Empire period; court was fashionable; England vs. France so no French styles in England

Dandy

Fashionable man in England in the Directoire/Empire periods

Paisley shawls

Popular in the US in the Directoire/Empire periods; from the town of Paisley in Scotland; distinctive print, which is still around today

Arkwright

Directoire/Empire; US; made the first cotton mill & water frame & patented a method of dying wigs

Whitney

Directoire/Empire; US; invented the cotton gin; made cotton available & affordable

Joseph Marie Jacquard

Directoire/Empire; made a mechanized loom for weaving patterned fabrics

Slater

Directoire/Empire; father of U.S. manufacturing; stole Arkwright's mill from memory when he came to the U.S. from England; took Arkwright's patent

Watt

Directoire/Empire; invented the steam engine

War of 1812

Empire; Mexico vs. US

Directoire Period

1795-1800

Chemise (Directoire, female)

Cut close and straight to the body; it went to the knees; some wore corsets over it that pushed the boobs up & false bosoms

Underwear (Directoire, female)

Cotton or linen underwear in the US & England; open in the crotch

Empire Period

1800-1820

Pantalettes

Empire periods; female; long, straight white drawers trimmed with rows of lace

Round gowns

Empire; female; closed in the front- worn for day or evening

Leg-o-mutton sleeve

big at top, tapered down to cuff

Muslin fever

Empire; flu epidemic because women were wearing such lightweight clothing

Spencer jacket

Empire period; female; short jacket that ended just under the bosom; worn inside or outside

Pelisse

Empire; female; similar to a modern coat- followed the typical empire silhouette

Women's hair in Empire Period

Grecian; soft ringlets; pulled back

Women's hats in Empire Period

Jockey caps for riding
Turbans popular after Napoleon invaded Egypt
Bonnets with wide brims
Gypsy hats - low crown and wide brim, worn with a ribbon tied under the chin
Day caps- worn by mature women in the home

Women's shoes in Empire Period

Matched pelisse; leather, satin, velvet; flat sometimes w/ laces

Reticules or indispensibles

Empire Period; females; small drawstring handbags

Cossacks

Empire period; male; extremely full trousers

Men's hair/hats in Empire Period

Short hair, clean-shaven, whiskers & sideburns, top hats, bicorne (2-pointed hat), Chapeau bras (top hat that flattened)

Quizzing glasses

Empire period; men; magnifying glasses mounted to a handle worn around the neck

Children in the Empire Period

Girls dressed like women; until age 5 boys wore dresses; at 11 they finally dressed as men

Romantic Period

1820-1850; ignored social conventions like marriage, emphasized emotions,

Queen Victoria

Queen of England in Romantic Period; Stressed obedience, male authority, hard work, & sexual morality

France in the Romantic Period

After Napoleon fell, the Bourbon Monarchy was restored; earlier styles restored; some men rejected these old styles

US in the Romantic Period

Westward expansion; cotton & slaves; right before Civil War

Romantic women in the Romantic Period

Purposely looked pale & tired

US slaves in the Romantic Period

Wore hand-me-downs

Automated knitting machinery

Romantic period; made seamless hosiery

Magazines in the Romantic Period

Godey's Lady's Book & Peterson's Magazine; hand-colored styles from Paris

Daguerre

Romantic period; perfected photography; actual photographs started being used to show styles

Morning Dress (Romantic, female)

Romantic period; female; informal like lingerie; white cotton; ruffled trims

Day/Walking/Promenade/Carriage Dress (Romantic, female)

Romantic period; female; low waistlines, wide sleeves, full skirts without trains; necklines were high with a ruff, V-shaped, draped, or open with a white linen or cotton filler; Chemisettes or tuckers raised the necklines of daytime dresses and could be worn on different dresses

Dinner dress (Romantic, female)

Romantic period; female; more formal

Evening/Ball dress (Romantic, female)

Romantic period; female; most formal; shorter sleeves, necklines, hemlines

Mancherons (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; Decorative epaulettes placed at the shoulder

Marie sleeve

Romantic; female; full to the wrist, but tied in intervals with ribbons or bands

Demi-gigot sleeve

Romantic; female; full from shoulders to elbow, then fitted from elbow to wrist; sometimes had extension over wrist

Gigot/leg-o-mutton sleeve

Romantic; female; full at shoulder and gradually getting smaller to wrist where it ended in a fitted cuff

Imbecile/idiot sleeve

Romantic; female; extremely full from shoulder to wrist where they gathered in a fitted cuff; like a straight jacket then

Pelerines (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; wide cape-like collars that extended over the shoulders and across the bosom

Fichu pelerine (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; had two wide panels or lappets extending down the front of the dress and passed under the belt

Santon (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; silk cravet worn over a ruff

A la Choinoise (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; hairstyle like a top knot

Capote (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; bonnet style hat with soft fabric crown and stiff brim

Gilet corsage (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; - imitated a man's waistcoat (waistcoat bodice) was a front-buttoning jacket that was worn with a skirt

Bishop sleeve (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; vertical pleats at shoulder, full then gathered into a fitted cuff

Sleeve en Bouffant (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; alternated places of tightness with puffs

Victoria sleeves (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; puff at elbow

Undersleeves (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; white cotton sewn into the bottom of the sleeve that could be removed for laundering

Chatelaines (Romantic, female)

Romantic; female; chains with useful items like scissors, thimbles, button hooks, and penknives tied around the waist

Jeanette (Romantic, female)

Romantic period; female; narrow tresses of hair or velvet ribbon tied a cross or heart of pearls around the neck

Newmarket Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; riding coat with tails that sloped gradually from front to back

Hussar front/beak coat (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; Waistcoats got longer and had a point at the front

Fly fronts (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; closure in trousers

Spatterdashers (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; like rain boots

Cravats (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; scarves

Great coat (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; general term for overcoat, could be ankle-length

Box coat (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; loose greatcoat with one or more capes at the shoulder

Chesterfield (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; greatcoat with no waistline seam, no pleats, a small vent in back, and often times made with velvet collars

Mackintosh (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; waterproof coat made of rubber: not widely accepted because of a smell when they were wet

Gibus (Romantic, men)

Romantic; men; collapsible top hat

Children in the Romantic Period

Began dressing like adults again; uncomfortable; boys wore dresses til 5 or 6;

Skeleton suit (Empire, boys)

Empire period; boys; what little boys wore

Eton suit (Romantic, boys)

Romantic; boys; a waist length coat, trousers, waistcoat and tie that little boys wore

Tunic suit (Romantic, boys)

Romantic; boys; the jacket had a full gathered skirt at the bottom; worn with trousers

Crinoline Period

1850-1869; named after the cage crinoline, which provided support for skirts when they got too wide for petticoats alone; the cage crinoline was lighter than multiple petticoats

Charles Worth

Revived the hoop skirt that was used in the 1500's and 1700's; Englishman who moved to Paris to work in the Maison Gagelin fashion house; designed dresses for his wife to wear and caught the eye of Princess Pauline Metternich, wife of the Austrian ambassador

Chambre Syndicate de la Couture Parisienne (Crinoline)

Crinoline; an organization of couturiers started by Worth

Haute couture (Crinoline)

Crinoline; the high fashion dressmaking; Paris; Charles Worth

US in Crinoline Period

Civil War; factories; scrounged for fabric; inflation;

Strauss

Crinoline; dyed denim blue in the US for miners

Singer

Crinoline; made machines more affordable by producing them on an assembly line with interchangeable parts

Bloomer costume (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; heavy petticoats that hindered movement; turkish trousers

Turkish trousers Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; full on top tapered to the ankle, with short skirts over them

Barege (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; a fabric made of a silk and wool blend

Synthetic dyes (Crinoline)

Crinoline; first color was mauve

Cage crinoline Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; hoop skirt; was hoops of whalebone or steel sewn into rings- sometimes this was covered with quilted or flannel petticoats for warmth

Basques (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; extensions of fabric below the waist of the bodice

Pagoda sleeve (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; - narrow at the shoulder and expanded to a wide end

Red garibaldi (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; blouse popular in the 1860's
Named for red shirts worn by Italian soldiers who fought to unify Italy

Bertha trim (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; folded band of fabric around the neckline

Princess dress (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; one-piece dress with no waist seam
It had long gored sections extending from shoulder to floor that curved at the waist (princess seams)

Fichus (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; - cape with long lapels

Canezou (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; applied to a variety of accessories including fichus, muslin jackets, chemisette neck fillers

Pardessus (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; sleeved outdoor garment

Paletot (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; sleeved, but figure fitted outdoor garment

Pelisse (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; sleeved, double-breasted, unfitted coat with a wide, flat collar and wide reversed cuffs

Mantle (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; ¾ length coat fitted to waist in front, full in back, with either long loose sleeves or a full, shawl-like sleeves

Shawl-mantle (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; loose cloak reaching almost to floor

Talma-mantle (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; : full cloak with tasseled hood

Burnous (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; hooded cape

Zouave (Crinoline, female)

Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; short, collarless jacket, trimmed with braid and often worn over a garibaldi shirt

Hair for women in Crinoline Period

Crinoline; female; parted down middle, curls or braids, pads places at side of heads for fuller look, false hair, nets or snoods, bonnets

Morning jacket (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; riding coat/newmarket

Sack jacket (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; lounging jacket- more loose and comfortable with no waistline

Reefer/pea coat (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; - loose, double-breasted jackets with side vents and small collars

Trousers (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; Instep straps disappeared, but trousers remained fitted close to the leg

Knickerbockers (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; new sportswear after 1850- they had loose legs and belted into a band just below the knee; later just called knickers

Chesterfield (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; single or double breasted

Frock overcoat (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; same as frock but longer

Inverness cape (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; loose overcoat with full sleeves and a cape ending at wrist length

Raglan cape (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; full overcoat w/ raglan sleeves

Peg-topped (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; referring to the trousers; wider at the top and gradually narrowed to the ankle

Wide Awake (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; - low crown and wide brim, made of felt or straw

Stetson (Crinoline, male)

Crinoline; male; broad-brimmed, high-crowned felt hat of beaver and rabbit skins

Children's clothes in Crinoline Period

Like adults after age 5 or 6; girls' skirts lengthened as they aged

Bustle Period

1870-1890

The 90's

1890-1900

Weighted silk

Bustle; silk was weighted to give it more body but it was brittle

Mercerized cotton

Bustle; treated with sodium hydroxide- to improve strength, dying, and luster

Gibson girl

Bustle; first mass-produced female ready-to-wear garment

Piecework concept

Bustle; each machine operator completed only one step of the process

Aesthetic dress

Bustle; was a movement to make clothing more comfortable and less restrictive

Art Nouveau

Bustle; was an attempt to develop an artistic style with no roots from another earlier style

1870-1878 Bustle (first)

Bustle; full bustle was created by manipulation of draping fabric at the back of the skirt

1878-1883 Bustle (second)

Bustle; sheath or cuirass bodice was fashionable- the fullness dropped to below the hips and a semicircular frame supported the trailing skirts (metal bustles supported bustles)

1884-1890 Bustle (third)

Bustle; large, rigid, shelf like bustles

Combination (Bustle, female)

Bustle; female; was a chemise and drawers combined into one garment
Cooler, less bulky, more comfortable for traveling and moving around

Tea gown (Bustle, female)

Bustle; female; worn without a corset, loosely fitted, and in a softer line than day or evening dresses; worn at home or with friends

Princess polonaise (Bustle, female)

Bustle; female; When the outer fabric was looped up or draped over the hip the style

Curious bodice (Bustle, female)

Bustle; female;a long jacket ending in a point in the front and smoothly fitting over the hips, made bustle fullness decrease

Ulster (Bustle, female)

Bustle; female; long, belted coat made with a removable shoulder cape or hood

Gibson girl (90's, female)

90's; female; drawings by Gibson; also hairstyle w/ waves around face, pompadour, & ears showing;

Union suit (Bustle, male)

Bustle; male; - could be purchased, which
were drawers and under vests in one
garment

Inverness cape (Bustle, male)

Bustle; male; coat with a full cape covering the shoulders and arms

Ulster (Bustle, male)

Bustle; male; long, almost ankle-length coat with a full or half belt

Straw boater (Bustle, male)

Bustle; male; worn for sport; Music Man hat

Little girls in Bustle/90's

Dressed like adult women; Kate Greenaway showed them wearing empire-waists in her books

Little boys in Bustle/90's

Wore skirts then knickers then dressed like adults; Little Lord Flauntleroy was had a velvet tunic, tight knickerbockers, a wide sash and a white lace collar- they wore their hair curled; they did not like this; sisses/mama's boys wore this

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