When theology is seen to be an exercise in Holy Reason
One must also view theology as an activity undertaken "in prayerful dependence upon the Holy Spirit...as an exercise in the fellowship of the saints, serving the confession of the holy people of God".
Te Deum Laudamus
Alongside the Apostles' Creed and the Athanasian Creed, Luther identifies this as the third symbol or creed of the Christian faith.
faithful and rational reflection upon the gospel
argued that "All the life and power of true religion consist in the inward and full persuasion of the mind".
Roger Olson does not believe that...
Contemporary Christianity is in fine condition (it is seriously and intellectually engaged with matters of doctrine and stands at a distance from uncritical religious activity).
is a fitting description of theology as a proper intellectual task
Migliore does not believe that...
genuine faith avoids questions because it knows that ideas may actually undermine belief in God
Luther denies the claim that in order to acquire God's grace
we must be committed to doing the good that is in us.
a theology of glory
calls evil good and good evil
Barth regards theology as
a means of taking rational trouble over the mystery of God.
Theologians identify the following as possible sources for theological knowledge
Scripture, Tradition, Reason, Experience
This is not one of the branches of theology addressed by Migliore. He does address Historical, Biblical, and Practical theology.
Christocentric theology, Method of Correlation, and the Praxis approach
are the three important types of theological method identified by Migliore
The approach to theology in this course
Evaluation of the question: "What must one know in order to best understand the faith?" This excludes theologies that ask, "what must someone know in order to come to faith?" and theologies evaluated in terms of whether or not a non-Christian could understand its claims.
Theology is thinking in the wake of God. It is not "running ahead of God", "acting (praxis) not thinking", or "creative and abstract."
In contrast to Enlightenment doubt (cf. Clifford) Luther and Barth speak of faith in this way.
According to Gonzalez and Perez this form of theology is most concerned with defending the faith and building a bridge for nonbelievers.
Neglect of Theology
According to Migliore, when this happens, the community of faith risks either drifting aimlessly, or being captured by spirits alien to its own.
Migliore and our lecture reminds us that this is a discipline that seeks to follow the consistent patterns of God's action revealed in Scripture.
He or she deserves to be called a theologian
Luther says this of he or she who comprehends the visible and manifest things of God seen through suffering and the cross.
"faith seeking understanding"
According to Gonzalez and Perez, one of the most viable forms of theology as contemplation is connected with the work of Anselm and expressed in this phrase
When Migliore argues that theology should be "systematic"
he has in mind the fact that because God is faithful, there are patterns and continuities in the acts of God attested in Scripture that give shape and coherence to theological reflection
True or False: Migliore and Husbands believe that Christian theology is a disparate bundle of symbols and doctrines from which one can select at will and organize into any pattern one pleases.
True or False: James Cone argues that theological claims only have meaning when they reflect the inseparable bond between our trust in God's grace and our call to God's service (i.e., the Church living in the world on the basis of what it proclaims".
The Latin phrase "Veni Creator Spiritus" means:
Come, Creator Spirit!
Christian theology is...
"taking rational trouble over the mystery"
Psalm 19:1 ("The heavens are telling the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims his handiwork")
Is generally used in support of general revelation
Trinity and Incarnation
According to Aquinas these doctrines could not be known with the use of natural reason.
The Bible was written in order to guide the people of God in paths of obedience
According to Gonzalez and Perez this fact is crucial to recognize about the Bible. It was not intended to be read in bits and pieces, to give us INFORMATION rather than to be used for our FORMATION, or meant to be primarily read alone and in silence.
The First Vatican Council
Was optimistic regarding the possibility that God's existence could be demonstrated and known by human reason apart from special revelation
The meaning of special revelation
"the knowledge of God may well be a disturbing and disruptive reality in our lives."
According to Migliore, this word refers first of all to Jesus and not the Bible.
Karl Barth's three forms of the Word of God
revealed (Jesus Christ), written (Scripture), and proclaimed (church preaching)
John 8:12 ("I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness but will have the light of life.")
This verse leads Barth to speak of the existence of true words of God spoken outside the Church, and he does so with the phrases lesser lights and secular parables.
noetic effects of sin
theologians use this phrase in order to express the claim that sin effects our reason and ability to properly identify God - we often end up creating idols.
The kind of knowledge we can acquire from the natural order
Gonzalez and Perez point out that when we stop to think about this kind of knowledge it is not absolutely clear and undeniable.
This is not one of the three main sections of the Old Testament. The three main sections are: Torah/Law, Prophets, and Writings
This phrase is explicitly related to the "Reformed Scripture Principle." It is not related to the Roman Catholic teaching on Scripture, the need to read Scripture alone, or the need to "fly solo" when living out the Christian life.
interpreting the Bible ecclesially
Migliore relates this to reading, hearing, and interpreting Scripture WITHIN the horizon of the faith and practice of the church
This was the primary criterion used to attest which books of the New Testament period were to become part of the canon. It was not arbitrary whim and luck, visions and dreams, or that St. Paul offered the church an official "list" of books.
Calvin did not believe Scripture needed this. He believed that Scripture has it's authority from God not the church, that the church is grounded in Scripture, and that the witness of the Holy Spirit is stronger than all proof.
He sought to establish his own version of the Bible; one that did not include the Old Testament, and whose New Testament only included the Gospel of Luke and ten Pauline letters out of which he deleted any substantial reference to Judaism.
If you have seen the risen Christ, been commissioned by Christ, and bear faithful witness to the revelation and redemptive work of the triune God then you have the measure of what it means to be an apostle. Being a charismatic leader with cool glasses and an effective preaching ministry is NOT an established Christian measure of what it means to be an apostle.
This arose in the Mediterranean world and the Near East and evolved into a type of religious dualism (associated with Manichaeism) believing that reality could be divided into two hostile or antagonistic principles; one represented the good, the other evil.
The Holy Spirit
Migliore insists that the Holy Spirit uses Scripture to relate us to God and to transform our life.
Believing in the Bible
According to Miglire, Christians ought NOT to do this, but rather, should believe in the living God attested (witnessed to) by the Bible.
A necessary improvement upon the Bible
According to the lecture, Christian doctrine is NOT this--it is not responsible for making a messy text clear and understandable.
Gospel of Thomas
This shows us that gnostics had a profoundly negative view of women and the body.
1 Peter 2:20-21
These verses remind us that no prophecy came by human will but rather men and women were moved by God to speak.
He insists that the highest proof of Scripture lies in the fact that God speaks in it, and it is the inward testimony of the Holy Spirit that convinces us of this truth.
Unitarianism of the Spirit
This is NOT one of the distortions or heresies against which classical trinitarian doctrine fought. It did fight against subordinationism, modalism, and tritheism.
Justin Martyr shares with him the belief that divine perfection required immutability.
For this individual the Son is of a similar but not the same substance. Nicaea, Alexander of Alexandria, and Origen all affirmed that they were of the same substance.
Hilary of Poitiers, believed that this was not powerful enough to tell us what God is. Words cannot fully express the reality of God.
Hilary of Poitiers
He shows us that while we can draw a distinction in kind between the Father and the Son, at the same time, we must say that they are both One, God of God.
An arcane, speculative doctrine
According to Migliore, rightly understood, the doctrine of the Trinity is not this; but rather, it is an understanding of God that is appropriate to and congruent with the Gospel message.
Classical Niceno-Constantinopolitan teaching
The crux of this teaching is that God is "one in essence, distinguished in three persons."
According to him, the Triune God loves in freedom and only this God can be worshipped and served as the ultimate power in full confidence and total trust.
The Councils of Nicea (325) and Constantinople (381)
These Councils are crucial in the development of the classical doctrine of the Trinity.
Alexander of Alexandria
He did NOT believe that there was (a time) when the Son was not. Arius did believe this.
a koinonia of persons
When Migliore uses this expression, he means that God is a fellowship of love shared among three persons. He does not mean that God is just like us, and enjoys a friendship with others.
mutual indwelling or "being in one another"
This is not a communicable attribute. Mercy, love, and justice are communicable attributes.
Gregory the Great
He is not one of the Cappadocian Fathers. Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, and Basil of Ceasarea are Cappadocian Fathers.
Deus non est Genere
Thomas Aquinas (and Karl Barth) use this phrase to express that God is utterly unique. God is not a particular instance within a class.
Theologians often employ a strategy of identifying divine attributes by choosing facets of existence that we find to be good and then "extending them out" to the nth degree.
In his article on the Cappadocians, Allison reminds us that it is a mistake to imagine that this word (when translated into English) in the ancient world (especially when used to speak of God) meant personality rather, it meant a capacity for relationship.
Proper trinitarian theology questions the modern understanding of person that grounds personal identity in this.
social nature of the triune God
Migliore warns that our understanding of this should not be a projection of our own ideals of community; to which he adds, we must not forget that God is God and we are creatures.
Karl Barth's retrieval of classical attributes (in dialectical pairs)
According to Migliore, this enables Barth to say that God is "free to be compassionate toward us, free to become vulnerable for our sake, without ceasing to be God."
He believes that the Trinity lays a foundation for a society of brothers and sisters, of equals, in which dialogue and consensus are basic constituents of living together in the world and the church.
Two of the great Cappadocian Fathers, Basil of Ceasarea and Gregory of Nyssa, were taught theology by her.
One of the key implications of speaking of this as the constitutive attribute of God, is the recognition that "God is the one who freely loves, and loves in freedom."
Scripture speaks of God
It does this by speaking of God in relation to creation and a people. It does not do this by speaking of God using abstract language, in impersonal and majestic ways, or by speaking of God in terms of God's self.
He argues that in their efforts to introduce Christianity to the Greco-Roman world, Christians began interpreting their God in Platonic terms, with the result that they introduced an aristocratic god, one who would serve to support the privilege of the higher classes.
Gregory of Nyssa
He said the following: "With regard to the divine nature, on the other hand, it is otherwise. We do not learn that the Father does something on his own, in which the Son does not co-operate. Or again, that the Son acts on his own without the Spirit. Rather does every operation which extends from God to creation and is designated according to our differing conceptions of it have its origin in the Father, proceeds through the Son, and reach its completion by the Holy Spirit."
The Doctrine of the Trinity
This is the answer to the question, "Who is God?" It is not the answer to the questions "What is the Christian analogy to 'ice, water, and steam?'" or "How do we figure out how to be a decent community?" or "What does genuine human love and self-giving look like?"
This term allows us to speak of distinctions without thereby implying either a separation of diminution of the persons of the Trinity.
Proven the existence of the God of Abraham
Gonzalez points out that when, with the help of Thomas Aquinas' "five ways" we have proven that everything that exists has a first cause, we have NOT done this.
Gonzalez clams that any God whose existence can be proven is this.
According to Gonzalez, this does NOT mean that God has the power to do any and all things.
Gregory of Nyssa
He does NOT teach that when we speak of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit we should think of this as three distinct gods, and not merely three persons or ways of being.
In light of this challenge, we must answer "yes" to the question, "Must the Father and the Son be eternally distinguished within the Godhead?"
An ontology in which dynamic and active categories are preeminent. An example of this would be the notion of covenant where God acts to establish and carry out a promise to Israel.
The lecture has taught us to reject this as an effective analogy by which we can imitate the dynamic sharing and self-offering of the three persons.
A Theology of Nature
In the context of his discussion of Creation, Migliore dismisses natural theology, while insisting upon the crucial importance of this.
"riddle of creation"
According to Barth, this is that God, who does not need us, created Heaven and Earth, and myself.
Reflecting upon the way in which N.T. Wright understands the competing ways in which God and creation may be related, he claims that when god's space and ours are slid together (option 1), we end up believing in this.
"creation is grace"
When Migliore states that "the sovereign goodness of God is already at work in the act of creation" he is offering support to this assertion.
The first article of the Apostle's Creed
In this, Christians affirm their faith in God the creator, "Maker of heaven and Earth."
He claimed that the task of science is to force nature to give up its secrets. Migliore argues that this is an illustration of the fact that for far too long the goal of science has been seen as the subjection of nature to the human will.
Augustine and Thomas
Migliore argues that we should NOT persist in believing that these figures were correct in teaching that "By a most just ordinance of the Creator, both their life and their death are subject to our use." Migliore argues tat we should break with this "anthropocentrism."
He did NOT believe that God created the world so that it could exist as an autonomous, free and independent reality quite apart from his ongoing care and love.
N.T. Wright argues that the real problem with this is that one is unable to deal with the question of evil.
He claims that when pilgrims and worshippers went to Jerusalem and into the Temple to worship and offer sacrifices, they wouldn't have said that it was as though they were going to Heaven. They would have said that they were going to the place where Heaven and Earth overlapped and interlocked.
According to Barth, we must not look for darkness in God himself because the Father is the author of light. Accordingly, we are speaking of an ideal when we appeal to this.
He is responsible for the claim that Creation is grace because the TRiune God gladly gives to us, creaturely nature, existence, and freedom.
He claimed that the weakness of all pantheistic and mechanistic conceptions of providence is that they imply that there is only one form of causality and everything must conform to it.
This term is used to sum up the claim that the world was brought into being without any pre-existent matter.
the move from language of divine grace to causality
This represents a significant reason for the collapse of the classical doctrine of creation.
The goal of creation
Following Calvin, Karl Barth teaches that this is to be the theatre of God's clory, such that humanity is enabled to be an active witness to God's acts.
God is actively involved in the world
When speaking of the doctrine of providence Colin Gunton insists this because God is not content to leave the world to its own devices.
The Credo (I believe...)
In agreement with Bart, the class lecture insists that this is the correct context within which to speak of creation.
He insists that god wills all things, but God does not cause all things.
The centrality of Jesus Christ and the salvation that he brings
According to Migliore, this is the mark of whether any reflection upon any topic is truly Christian.
For us and our salvation
The Nicene Creed insists that Jesus Christ became incarnate for this reason.
Our lecture has identified this as the article upon which the Church stands or falls
divine butler or life-coach
This is NOT one of the criteria Israel developed that was used to answer the question "to whom is it appropriate for human creature to render acts of worship." The criteria they used was creator, sovereign ruler, and redeemer.
A healthy sign in contemporary scholarship is the determination to understand Jesus afresh within this context.
In arguing against Arius, he did NOT argue thatt the human nature of Jess Christ is subject to passion, and hence not impassible.
The Nicene Creed
This teaches us that Jesus Christ is from the reality (ousias) of the Father.
Athanasis claims that the divine logos is this.
He argues that from the earliest stages, Jesus was equated with God. In other words, the affirmation of the full divinity of Jesus was not a late (i.e., 325) development.
He is created by God the Father
This is NOT said of Jesus in the Nicene Creed. The creed does affirm that Jesus is the only begotten Son of the Father, the he will comes to judge the living and the dead, and the he is God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God.
He was responsible for the claim (concerning the Chalcedonian Definition) that "Christian doctrines were not conformed to the mould of already existing terminologies, but terms already available were adopted into Christian discourse and given new meanings."
Emphasizing the humanity or divinity at the expense of the other is what Lecture 12 has depicted as this.
Gregory of Nazianzen
He is responsible for the following statement: "If anyone has put his trust in Him [Jesus] as a man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. For that which He [the Son] has not assumed He has not healed; but that which is united to His Godhead is also saved. If only hald of Adam fell, then that which Christ assumes and saves may be half also; but if the whole of his nature fell, it must be united to the whole nature of Him that was begotten, and so be saved as a whole."
This believes that Christ did not join himself to physical reality/body. He only appeared to be flesh. For Christ to remain pure/holy, he had to remain at a distance from matter, which was thought to be evil.
This individual states the following: "we do not let God sit idly by in heaven among the angels, but we find him here below, lying in the manger and on his Mother's lap. We summarize and say: 'Wherever we encounter this person, there we surely encounter the Divine Majesty.'"
This Chalcedonian Definition does NOT require us to reject this.
The Antiochene tradition (Word-Man Christology) affirms the full, undiminished human nature of Jesus, to the degree to which they refuse this language.
This tradition is fundamentally unitive, insisting upon the true unity of the two natures.
Cyril of Alexandria and the Chalcedonian Definition
These teach us that the human nature that the Son assumes to his person is the substance of all other human persons, not that it is simply his own unique humanity.
The dramatic proclamation of the grace and love of God
This most accurately captures the meaning of atonement.
Joanne Carlson Brown
She is credited with saying the following: "I want to speak about the Christian doctrine of atonement and the way it has been used to glorify abuse in our society. Women are acculturated to accept abuse, believe it is our place to suffer...The message is complicated further by the theology that says Christ suffered in obedience to his Father's will. This "divine child abuse" is paraded as salvific. The child who suffers without even raising a voice is lauded as the hope of the world."
This is not one of the four standard views of the atonement. Christus Victor, Ransom Theory, and Mora Exemplarist/Influence Theory are standard views.
This theologian insists that God is the subject of the atonement.
This teaches us that Christ has put an end to sacrifices once and for all.
Gerhard von Rad
He insists that animal sacrifice is really about redemption rather than punishment and suffering.
One of their common objections to the notion of the atonement is the view that sacrifice is unworthy of the Christian God.
Class lectures have NOT argued that one of the reasons this ought to be adopted is that there is New Testament evidence showing that God paid a ransom to the Devil.
He argues that the "classical idea" of the atonement during the patristic period was the "Christ the Victor" model.
His account of the atonement addresses the question of sin as the disruption of the moral order, and represents an insult and offense to God.
He teaches that Jesus reconciles men and women to God by revealing the love of God to them, a love so profound and moving that it compels men and women to abandon their resistance to the love of God and to repond to it with love and gratitude. Our love for God is a response to God's love for us, and God's love for us is displayed most clearly in the cross.
Awareness of the work of the Spirit among Pentecostals in the global south.
This is not one of the contributing factors identified by Migliore leading to a renewed interest in the Holy Spirit and Christian spirituality (though he could have spoken to this issue).
wisdom and understanding
This is not something David asked for in the Psalm following his adulterous affair with Bathsheba. He did ask for a clean heart, the joy of (your) salvation, and a new and right spirit.
This theologian claimed that the Holy Spirit "has baptized me and preached the Gospel of Christ to me and awakened my heart to believe. Baptism did not grow out of me, nor did the gospel and the creed, but he gave them to me, for the fingers which baptized me are not those of a human being, but the fingers of the Holy Spirit."
2 Corinthians 3:17-18
In light of this passage Karl Barth draws a connection between the Spirit and freedom.
The Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed
This creed affirms the Holy Spirit is "the lord, the Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son."
This passage which begins "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me," appears in the Gospel of Luke.
According to this passage bringing peace and comfort is NOT something that the Holy Spirit comes to do.
The Holy Spirit
Reflecting upon the work of the Spirit in the New Testament, today's lecture and Migliore remind us that, for Paul this is the "firstfruits" of the harvest of God's coming reign.
He asserts that the Spirit, Father and Son are indivisibly united in their external operations.
"speaking in tongues"
Today's lecture has NOT insisted that "baptism in the Holy Spirit" is simply linked to this.
According to Barth, where te Spirit is, there is freedom. For this reason we are to call upon God with the prayer, "Veni Creator Spiritus."
Today's lecture credited this theologian with determining that the 4th century Latin Vulgate (translation of the Greek) had mistranslated the term dikaiosune (righteousness).
The breakthrough in a Protestant understanding of the Gospel came when this individual understood, for the first time, that what Paul meant regarding the "righteousness of God" (Rom. 1:17) was not punitive but a promise of God's gracious movement towards us, making us righteous.
This term in regards to justification refers to the declarative pattern of justification.
happy or joyous exchange
Luther's use of this phrase refers to the double exchange of sin and righteousness.
This individual taught that you become righteous by doing righteous deeds.
He reminds us that when we hear the phrase "justification by faith" we ought NOT to think of faith as a human act by which we merit justification.
When this individual speaks of the difference between Karma and Grace, he is finding an effective way of telling us that he has placed his hope in alien rather than proper righteousness.
According to Luther, one becomes righteous by this rather than by seeing.
Luther's theology of justification
One of the best ways to make sense of this is to give ontological priority to possibility rather than actuality.
nos extra nos (ex-centric)
Our consideration of justification has taught us that to be a person of faith means to live as this as opposed to be incurvatus in se (turned in upon ourselves).
Webster believes that creaturely holiness follows from God's gracious consecration of human persons.
Webster uses Ephesians 4:1 "He chose us in him (Christ) before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy" in order to teach us that:
sanctification is really a matter of election
Mortification and Vivification are terms / events that have to do with the following:
holiness as the laying aside of all that was put to death on the cross and a living out all that has been alive in Christ's resurrection.
that through God's work, we are made holy
penned the claim that "Christ was given to us by God's generosity, to be grasped and possessed by us in faith. By partaking of him, we principally receive a double grace: namely, that being reconciled to God through Christ's blamelessness, we may have in heaven instead of a Judge a gracious Father; and secondly, that sanctified by Christ's spirit we may cultivate blamelessness and purity of life."
A "formed life"
is a way of expressing the sense that sancitification is God's gift of a life of extemporary response to God
holiness as participation
because holiness is alien, we are 'holy' in as much as we share in the life of Christ
shows us that we are sanctified in Christ and therefore have one common Father
this is central to a biblical understanding of holiness - it reminds us that we are not holy by virtue of the exercise of our will
Calvin speaks of the gift of Christ as a "double grace" which includes both justification and sanctification
Barth on sanctification
"As we are not asked to sanctify ourselves. Our sanctification consists in our participation in His sanctification as grounded in the efficacy and revelation of the grace of Jesus Christ."Theological Anthropology This is concerned with doctrinal reflection upon the nature and destiny of human beings created in the image of God. In light of the biblical witness, it recognizes that human beings, subject to temptation and fallen into sin, are depraved.
The Image of God
From Philo of Alexandria on, the Image of God has been associated with rationality.
This theologian is responsible for teaching us that Christ "recapitulates" in his own earthly life, the destiny and purpose of humankind.
This figure is responsible for the following passage: "It is you, Lord, who judge me. For though no one can know a man's thoughts except that man's own spirit within him, there are some things in man which even his own spirit within him does not know. But you, Lord, know all there is to know of him, because you made him ... This much I know, although at present I am looking at a confused reflection in a mirror ... my hope lies in the knowledge that you do not play us false. I shall therefore confess both what I know and what I do not know. For even what I know about myself I know because your light shines upon me; and what I do not know about myself I shall continue not to know until I see you face to face and my dusk is noonday."
A Culture of Authenticity
When Charles Taylor writes that when people "resist the effort to root human identity in a tradition or external authority, such as the church or scripture" and instead "are driven to imagine that in order to be properly human, they must turn inwards. through expressive introspection in the hope of discovering their unique personhood" they are unknowingly shaped by this.
Hierarchy or superiority of man over woman
While Barth thinks this is part of the first creation story, Migliore disagrees with Barth on this matter.
According to the biblical witness, this is NOT first of all a duty-it is NOT something that we owe to God and others.
Immortality of the Soul
This is NOT a Christian belief.
"soul," "spirit," "heart," and "body"
In the Old Testament, these terms do NOT denote specific body parts because the Old Testament is uninterested in the way in which these parts are related to the activity of the body as a whole.
flesh or "sarx"
Our lecture on anthropology has NOT taught us that this is inherently evil, and that salvation is deliverance out of the mortal body.
The Postmodern Period
This makes it difficult for us to follow Polonius' advice to his son Laertes, "This above all, to thine own self be true."
This theologian writes the following while commenting upon the arrogance and over-confident autonomy of the modern person: "man only wants to judge. He thinks he sits on a high throne, but in reality he sits only on a child's stool, blowing his little trumpet, cracking his little whip, pointing with frightful seriousness his little finger, while all the time nothing happens that really matters. He can only play the judge.
This passage teaches us that out "true self" is hidden with Christ in God. So much is this true that we ought to join Bonhoeffer in resting our hope in the confession, "Whoever I am, You know me, O God, You know I am yours!"
Contemporary Problems Facing the Church.
Migliore identifies three of these: 1. Misunderstanding and hostility towards the church stemming from a culture of individualism. 2. a privatized setting for religion in America, where work and public affairs are separated from a life of private faith. 3. The bureaucratic organization of the church - and with it a reduction of personal relationship to impersonal communication.
Compelling images of the church in the New Testament
Migliore identifies three of these: 1. the church as the "people of God." 2. the church as a servant people. 3. the church as the body of Christ.
This individual is responsible for the claim that "outside the Church there is no salvation."
In light of the Nicene Creed, this is not one of the four "classical marks" of the Church. "One," "Holy," and "Apostolic" are marks.
It is crucial to remember that Jesus did NOT teach that this is in fact a discrete character/boundary that should set Jews apart from others.
Gonzalez reminds us that this (in the early stages of the development of the principle) did NOT mean that one had to be a direct successor of an apostle for one's ministry to be regarded as valid.
Our lectures and Gonzalez and Perez teach us that the image of the Church as the body of Christ does NOT mean that we are Christ in the world, i.e., that as the hands and feet of Jesus we are the instrument by which Christ works in the world.
The church is this not because it is everywhere but because it includes all believers: in other words, the Church does not depend upon a single apostle or some secret following of people.
This Greek Term was originally a political term denoting an assembly of free people qualified to vote (cf. ACts 19:39). More generally, a public assembly of some sort.
The Holy Spirit
Our lecture has taught us that when we confess in the Nicene Creed "We believe in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church" we are actually confessing belief in this.
Gonzalez reminds us that this was maintained in the early Church by a common system of church leadership: there were five patriarchal cities that had archbishops. Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Rome.
He accepted Cyprian's claim that we should think of the Church as our Mother.