Exam 2

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The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence

heritability

We encode implicit memories by means of

automatic processing.

Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes are called

top-down processing.

Retinal disparity is an important cue for

perceiving distance.

Which of the following represents the very first of three steps basic to all sensory systems?

receiving sensory stimulation

Studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brain's

ability to quickly perceive a simple visual stimulus.

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

discriminative stimulus.

Mrs. McBride can't consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates

repression.

Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain's visual cortex?

feature detectors

Encoding a written word semantically rather than on the basis of the word's written appearance illustrates a distinction between

.
deep and shallow processing.

The importance of effortful processing for long-term retention is best illustrated by

the testing effect.

Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of

the Young-Helmholtz theory.

The process by which our sensory systems transform stimulus energies into neural impulses is called

transduction.

Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement.

intermittent

The existence of convincing scientific evidence that ESP is possible would pose the greatest challenge to the

contemporary scientific understanding of human nature.

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see

yellow

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves

extrinsic motivation.

When researchers added a few drops of vinegar to a brand-name beer, the beer tasters disliked it only if they had been told they were drinking vinegar-laced beer. This best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set.

The tendency to engage in behaviors that we observe others rewarded for performing best illustrates the influence of

vicarious reinforcement.

If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates

sensory adaptation.

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by

Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

Using your working memory to associate an unfamiliar textbook glossary term with other familiar words that are similar in meaning to the glossary term best illustrates

deep processing.

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning.

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as

shaping.

The effortful processing of information

can become automatic through practice.

The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.

Pavlov; Skinner

A geometric figure is most likely to trigger sexual arousal if presented shortly

before an appropriate US.

Damage to the ________ would most likely interfere with learning a conditioned fear response to the sight of a dog who had bitten you on several occasions.

cerebellum

Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of

cognitive processes.

Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual's mental capacities?

Charles Spearman

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by

retrieval failure.

The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called

cognitive learning.

If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates

associative learning.

Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of "Superman" on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior?

observational learning

Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of

shape constancy.

Visualizing an object and actually seeing that object activate similar brain areas. This most clearly contributes to

imagination inflation.

Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.

retention; acquisition

Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for

parallel processing.

Males' mental ability scores show greater ________ than females' mental ability scores.

variability

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a

cognitive map.

When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should

continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums.

Interventions that promote intelligence teach early teens that the brain is like a muscle that strengthens with use. This idea is designed to encourage the teens to view intelligence as

changeable over time.

To assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of several distinct abilities, psychologists have made extensive use of

factor analysis.

Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of

shaping

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because

so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.

The most creative scientists are those who

are intrinsically motivated to solve problems.

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

Psychics are unable to make millions of dollars betting on horse races. This undermines their claims to possess the power of

precognition.

Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for

parallel processing.

The constant quivering movements of our eyes enable us to

minimize sensory adaptation.

Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of

hierarchical organization.

B. F. Skinner's critics have claimed that he neglected the importance of the individual's

personal freedom.

After hearing a list of items, peoples' immediate recall of the items is more likely to show a _____ effect than is their later recall of the items.

recency

Interpreting new sensory information within the framework of a past memory illustrates

top-down processing.

Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a

perceptual set.

Source amnesia helps to explain

déjà vu.

Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.

cognitive processes

After hearing the sound of an ambulance, you may be momentarily predisposed to interpret a friend's brief coughing spell as a symptom of serious illness. This best illustrates the impact of

priming.

The law of effect was most clearly highlighted by

Skinner's experiments on reinforcement.

Visual perceptions of objects often change when the objects are viewed in different surroundings. This best illustrates

context effects.

The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of

memory construction.

Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to

preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.

The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is called

psychophysics.

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