What is papyrus and how did the Egyptians use it?
It is a reed plant that was used to make baskets, sandals, river rafts, and paper.
What rights did women have in ancient Egypt?
Women could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces, and take part in religious ceremonies
What three things led to the growth of government in ancient Egypt?
farming, crafts, and trade
How did the geography of the Nile River valley lead to the growth of a civilization there?
The Nile River valley had natural barriers for protection, enriched soil for farming, and the river and seas for trade.
Describe the Egyptian writing system
Picture symbols, called hieroglyphics, stood for objects, ideas, and sounds
What was the significance of Narmer's double crown?
It symbolized the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt
How was stone for a pyramid transported to the building site?
Cut blocks were placed on a sled and dragged over a path of logs to the Nile, then floated on a barge to the building site
What did Egyptians learn from embalming bodies?
use of herbs and drugs to treat illnesses; how to sew up cuts and set broken bones
What are some facts and details about the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom and their duties?
lived in palaces, were all-powerful, were considered gods, carried out religious rituals, appointed officials to handle government matters
How did the building of the pyramids lead to advances in science and mathematics?
used astronomy to find true north; 12-month calendar; number system based on 10
How did the Egyptians' religious beliefs compare to those of the Mesopotamian's?
Both believed in many gods and goddesses. Mesopotamians took a gloomy view of the the afterlife; Egyptians took a hopeful view
What improvements did the Middle Kingdom rulers make?
added more waterways and dams for irrigation, increased amount of land used for farming, built a canal between Nile River and Red Sea, improved art and architecture
What purposes did temples serve in Egypt?
houses for gods and goddesses, places for priests to perform rituals, banks, and warehouses
What was unusual about the reign of Hatshepsut?
She was the first woman to rule Egypt in her own right
How did Akhenaton upset the traditional order?
He stopped worship of old gods in favor of one god
Describe similarities and differences between the rule of Hatshepsut and Ramses II
Similar: built many temples
Different: Hatshepsut increased Egypt's wealth through trade, Ramses II waged war to expand the empire
The Nile River-the longest river in the world- is ______ miles long
How did the Egyptians take advantage of the Nile's yearly spring flooding?
They became successful farmers
What type of government did Egypt have after 3100 B.C.?
What shape does a diagram of Egypt's social classes look like?
In what two ways are Mesopotamia and Egypt the same?
economy and artisans
The Egyptians willingly served their all-powerful leader because they believed
unit came from a strong leader and the leader was a deity
Ancient Egyptians studied the ____ learn how to obtain life after death
Book of the Dead
The ancient Egyptian civilization was the first to have specialist in the field of
What was used to place the heavy stone blocks when building the pyramids?
The Great Pyramid in Giza was built for which pharaoh?
Egyptians enjoyed a period of stability, prosperity, and achievement during this time
the Middle Kingdom
This Egyptian's ruler's reign began the time known as the knew kingdom
This ruler avoided military conquests and expanded Egypt's economy
Which Egyptian ruler build many new temples during the New Kingdom period?
What is the main reason for the decline and fall of the Egyptian empire?
The Egyptians were attacked by people with stronger weapons
Historians think the Nubian people came from the African savannas south of the
This Nubian kingdom was formed when the stronger villages overtook weaker ones
Why was Napata a favorable location for trade?
Trade caravans crossed the upper Nile ther
Kushite traders brought back cotton, textiles, and other goods in exchange for
iron products and slaves
The kingdom of Kush was a great trading power for ____ years
A line of rulers that passes power from father to son is a
The Egyptian invention to prevent the pharaoh's body from decomposing was
The place where Egyptian families spent time together was their
The chief god of the Egyptians was
represented loyal wife and mother
capital of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom
built the Great Pyramid in Giza
western Asian people who conquered Egypt
grasslands south of Egypt
capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom
The Kushites moved their capital to Meroe to be close to
iron ore deposits
Who tried to give the Egyptians a new religion?
Results of Nile flooding included
fertile soil and development of surveying
Today we call it Sudan. The ancient Egyptians called it
Egyptians traded for
iron weapons and tools, ivory, gold, and incense
Also known as Menes, he united Upper and Lower Egypt
The natural barrier that protected Egypt in the south was the
The Nile River's flooding could be described as
gentle and dependable
____ ruled the underworld with her husband Osiris
goddess who ruled the Nile
largest desert in the world
used in paper making
tallest building in the world for 4,000 years
The Great Pyramid
believed to be the son of Re, the sun god
The king who drove the Hyksos out of Egypt was
What crops did the Egyptians grow?
flax, wheat, barley
The land around the Nile River delta is known as
The forced payments sent to the pharaoh by conquered peoples are called
The capital of Kush, located on a trade route was
An embalmed body wrapped in cloth strips is a
The Nile Delta is located in Upper Egypt or Lower Egypt?
What group was just below the pharaoh in Egyptian society?
Priests and nobles
What group was at the bottom of Egyptian society?
What group was in the middle of Egyptian society?
Traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes
What group was just above the unskilled workers in Egyptian society?
Farmers and herders
Who was a the top of Egyptian society?
The advances did the Egyptian's make in mathematics?
Invented a 365-day calendar with 12 months and they invented a written number system based on 10
Why did ancient Egyptians first value cats?
Cats protected grain supplies from mice and rats
Who were the Nubians?
cattle herders in the savannas and founders of Kerma
What were the Kushites' most important economic activities?
trade and ironworking
What events led up to the Kushite conquest of Egypt?
New Kingdom declines, Nubians rebel and found Kush, Kush grows rich from trade, Kush conquers Egypt
Why was Napata's location advantageous?
It was located at a point where trade caravans crossed the Nile
How did the Kushite kings demonstrate their admiration for Egyptian culture?
They build similar monuments, temples, and pyramids
Describe the similarities between Kush and Egypt
Kush modeled architecture on Egypt, both profited from trade along the Nile
What made the Kushites wealthy?
Trade and iron gave them superior weapons and better farming tools
The Nile River empties into what body of water?
How do you think religious leaders reacted to Akhenaton's changes?
They probably resisted because of a loss of power and challenge to belief systems
In what ways did Meroe look like an Egyptian city?
Meroe had small pyramids, a huge temple at the end of a grand avenue lined with sculpture, and decorated walls
What is a sarcophagus?